Just Vision's glossary is gleaned from terms used with frequency by interviewees in our Visionaries section. In defining terms, we strive to provide insight into the varying narratives surrounding issues, figures, historical events, and locations, as these differences in definition reflect the conflict itself. Each definition has been reviewed by both Arab and Jewish scholars of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.

1929 Riots

Also known as the Western or Wailing Wall Disturbances, these were the first large-scale occurrences of fighting among Arabs, Jews, and the British mandatory administration of Palestine. Though the deeper causes can be linked to greater tensions between increasing Jewish immigration to further the Zionist movement’s goal of a Jewish national homeland and the Palestinians’ nationalist aspirations, the fighting began over Jewish access to the Western Wall, known as Al-Buraq in Arabic or HaKotel in Hebrew. Jews believe the Western Wall to be the remnants of the Second Temple destroyed by the Roman Empire, which most historians and archaeologists concur with. For Muslims, it is at the base of the Haram Al-Sharif (The Noble Sanctuary), one of Islam’s holiest sites. Rumors of a Jewish plot to seize control of the holy places began to spread in the late 1920s, and violence erupted by 1929, causing extensive damage. 116 Palestinians and 133 Jews were killed in incidents reaching from Jerusalem, to Hebron, Jaffa and Safad. See: Pappe, Ilan. The Aristocracy of the Land: The Husayni Family. Jerusalem: Mossad Bialik, 2003 and Mattar, Philip. “Western (Wailing) Wall Disturbances.” Philip Mattar, ed. Encyclopedia of the Palestinians. New York: Facts on File, 2005. See also online: A Country Study: Israel. 1988. Library of Congress. 24 August 2011. http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/iltoc.html.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/1929-riots 

1936-1939 Arab Revolts/Riots

Described by some as the First Intifada, this Palestinian Arab uprising was the longest sustained movement of opposition to Zionism during British mandatory control of Palestine. Local rioting erupted on April 19, 1936 in the city of Jaffa but quickly spread throughout Palestine, coordinated with an extensive general strike. The riots followed a massive influx of Jews to Palestine, who fled the rise of Nazism in pre-war Germany. By 1936, the increase in Jewish immigration and land acquisition in Palestine, the growing power of Palestinian Muslim leader Hajj Amin al Husseini, and impatience with colonial rule over local Arab populations prompted Palestinian Arabs to act. The goals of the revolt were to shift British policy against Zionism by limiting or ending the influx of Jews, to ban land transfers to Jews, and to enable Palestinian Arabs to establish their own representative national government. Britain empowered the Peel Commission to investigate the disturbances, which recommended a two-state solution (one Arab and one Jewish) with a British enclave around Jerusalem and a corridor to the sea. The Commission’s report was accepted at the 20th Zionist Congress, but rejected by the Arab Higher Committee, leading to a resumption of riots. The riots were ultimately suppressed by harsh British measures, including the exiling of many Palestinian Arab leaders and the flight of many upper class families. See P Kumaraswamy, P.R. “Arab Revolt.”Historical Dictionary of the Arab-Israeli Conflict. Oxford: The Scarecrow Press, 2006; “Arab Revolt.” Bernard Reich, ed. An Historical Encyclopedia of the Arab-Israeli Conflict. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1996; Farsoun, Samih K. and Naseer H. Aruri. Palestine and the Palestinians, 2nd ed. Boulder: Westview Press, 2006; and A Country Study: Israel. 1988. Library of Congress. 24 August 2011. http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/iltoc.html.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/1936-1939-arab-revoltsriots 

1948

In 1948, proceeding the 1947 United Nations Partition Plan that divided the area of Palestine into two states (see Resolution 181/Partition Plan), fighting increased between Palestinians and Jewish Zionists. Israel claimed independence as a state on May 14, which was followed by the entry of troops from Egypt, Syria, Lebanon, Iraq and Jordan (then known as Transjordan) into Palestine and subsequent fighting between these Arab troops and the new Israeli army. These events led up to the flight and expulsion of hundreds of thousands of Palestinians from the area that became the State of Israel. For details and sources see War of 1948, Al-Nakba and Israeli Independence Day.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/1948

1967 Borders

Also known as the Green Line. Refers to the borders of Israel with Jordan, Egypt, Lebanon and Syria prior to the War of 1967. The "1967 Borders" became the political term used in negotiations between Israel and the Palestinian Authority to describe the borders of a future Palestinian state. During the War of 1967, Israel captured the Egyptian Sinai, the Syrian Golan Heights, Jordanian-controlled East Jerusalem and the West Bank, and the Egyptian-controlled Gaza Strip.See also War of 1967 and Green Line. http://www.justvision.org/glossary/1967-borders

1991 Gulf War

Military action by a United States-led coalition of 32 states to expel Iraqi forces from Kuwait. Iraqi forces invaded Kuwait on August 2, 1990, and claimed it as an Iraqi province. On January 18, 1991, two days after the American air campaign against Iraq began, Iraqi scud missiles first hit Israel. In total, Iraq launched approximately 40 scuds against Israel in the month that followed. The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), unlike most Arab states, supported Iraqi President Saddam Hussein. As a result, the PLO lost diplomatic and financial support from Saudi Arabia and the Gulf States. Kuwait also expelled most of the large Palestinian community in Kuwait, many of whom had lived there for decades, accusing them of supporting the Iraqi invasion. See Mattar, Philip. “Gulf Crisis.” Philip Mattar, ed. Encyclopedia of the Palestinians. New York: Facts on File, 2005; “The Gulf War: Chronology.” PBS. 24 August 2011. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/gulf/cron/;  and “Persian Gulf War.” Encyclopedia Britannica. 24 August 2011. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/452778/Persian-Gulf-War.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/1991-gulf-war

Abbas, Mahmoud

(1935- ) A Palestinian political figure.  He has been a leading figure in Fatah  and the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) since the 1960s. Throughout his career, Abbas has been involved in negotiations between Palestinians and the Israeli government, most notably as the leading Palestinian negotiator of the Oslo Accords and as the PLO signatory of the Declaration of Principles in September 1993. Following the death of Yasser Arafat in 2004, the PLO executive committee appointed Abbas as Chairman of the PLO. In January 2005, he was elected President of the Palestinian Authority (PA). He currently maintains both positions, though his four-year term as PA President would have ended in January 2009. However, PA presidential and legislative elections have been delayed. See Fischbach, Michael R. “Abbas, Mahmud.” Philip Mattar, ed. Encyclopedia of the Palestinians. New York: Facts on File, 2005; and “Profile: Mahmoud Abbas.” 5 November 2009. BBC. 13 June 2011. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/1933453.stm. http://www.justvision.org/glossary/abbas-mahmoud 

Abu Dis

A Palestinian town within the Jerusalem municipal boundaries, in an area often referred to as East Jerusalem. Est. population in 2007: 10,782, most of whom carry Jerusalem IDs. Israel’s Separation Barrier cuts through Abu Dis. See Jerusalem and Jerusalem ID.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/abu-dis 

Acre

(Akka in Arabic and Akko in Hebrew) A city in northern Israel, located along the Mediterranean coast just north of the city of Haifa. Est. population in 2009: 46,400, including Jewish and Palestinian Arab citizens of Israel.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/acre

Adam Institute for Peace and Democracy

An Israeli nonprofit organization founded in 1986 in memory of Emil Greenzweig. Greenzweig, an Israeli peace activist, was killed by a grenade thrown by an Israeli while he was marching in a protest against the 1982 War in Lebanon. The organization develops and implements programs to promote democracy, peace and civic education as well as methods of conflict resolution. See the Institute’s website at http://www.adaminstitute.org.il/english/.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/adam-institute-peace-and-democracy

AIPAC

The American Israel Public Affairs Committee (AIPAC) was founded in the 1950s. It is an American lobby group located in Washington, DC seeking to promote the passing of American legislation and government budgetary allocations that they deem favorable to Israel. AIPAC often, though not always, tends to support Israeli government policies. AIPAC is today one of the most influential foreign lobby groups in the United States. See the AIPAC website at http://www.aipac.org.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/aipac

Al-Aqsa Mosque

(Arabic for "the furthest mosque") A mosque located in the Old City of Jerusalem, adjacent to the Dome of the Rock on the area known as the Temple Mount or Haram Al-Sharif (The Noble Sanctuary). The structure was completed in the 7th century, destroyed by an earthquake in the 8th century, and restored to its current structure in the 11th century. While the Dome of the Rock was constructed as a mosque to commemorate the Muslim prophet Mohammad’s Night Journey described in the Qur’an, the building known as Al-Aqsa mosque became a center of worship and learning, attracting great teachers from all over the world. The mosque is currently under the supervision and authority of the Waqf (Islamic Endowment).  The area on which Al-Aqsa Mosque was built is known by Jews as the Temple Mount, the holiest place in Judaism. For Muslims, the area is known as Haram Al-Sharif and is considered Islam’s third holiest site. See the Haram Al-Sharif website at http://www.noblesanctuary.com/index.html.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/al-aqsa-mosque

Al-Araqib

A village in southern Israel, located 8 km north of the city of Be’er Sheva/Ber Sabe’ in the Negev. Just Vision cannot find recent/reliable population data on Al-Araqib as the Israeli government considers it to be an illegal village and had demolished it several times. Al-Araqib is inhabited by Bedouins and is one of many unrecognized Bedouin villages in Israel. See Bedouin.

al-Assad, Bashar

(1965- ) President of the Syrian Arab Republic from 2000-present. Bashar al-Assad assumed the presidency upon the death of his father and former Syrian president, Hafez al-Assad. Beginning in 2007, his regime engaged in indirect negotiations with Israel in an attempt to outline the details of a peace agreement, which would include the return of all or part of the occupied Golan Heights. Since early 2011, his regime has been challenged by internal protests calling for political reform and/or regime change. Syrian forces have violently suppressed many of these demonstrations, killing thousands of Syrians. See “Profile: Syria’s Bashar al-Assad.” 25 March 2011. BBC News. 13 June 2011. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/10338256.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/al-assad-bashar

al-Assad, Hafez

(1930-2000) President of the Syrian Arab Republic from early 1971 until his death in 2000. In 1970, Hafez al-Assad, then Minister of Defense, a general in the Syrian Air Force, and a member of the pragmatic, military wing of the Ba’ath party, wrested control of the government in a military coup. The coup was a reaction to years of dissatisfaction with the government of Salah Jadid, first expressed in the failure of the War of 1967 in which Syria lost the Golan Heights, and later in Syria’s aborted intervention in the Jordanian-Palestinian Black September. Assad’s centralization of power ended years of political instability and a series of successive coups. Assad consolidated his power and popularity in the War of 1973 when Egyptian and Syrian forces, backed by Jordan and Iraq, threatened Israel with significant military advances. Syria did not succeed in regaining the occupied Golan Heights, although the war was considered a political victory. Assad continued to try to find ways to return the Golan to Syria until his death in 2000, including brief negotiations with Israel in the early 1990s. He was staunchly anti-Zionist and Arab nationalist throughout his career. Hafez al-Assad was succeeded by his son, Bashar al-Assad. See “Hafez al-Assad.” The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. 14 July 2011. http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1E1-Assad-Ha.html.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/al-assad-hafez 

al-Dura, Mohammad

(1988-2000) A twelve-year-old Palestinian boy who was shot dead, allegedly by the Israeli army in Gaza at the beginning of the Second Intifada in September 2000. The boy was killed next to his father during an exchange of fire between Palestinian militants and the Israeli army at Netzarim junction in Gaza, an event captured on camera and publicized extensively. Within Palestinian society, Muhammad al-Dura was quickly deemed a martyr and symbol for all Palestinian children who have been killed by Israeli forces. For information on cases involving the French TV station that captured and first aired the coverage, see Patience, Martin. “Dispute rages over al-Durrah footage.” BBC. 8 November 2007. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/7083129.stm; and  “Court backs claim that al-Dura killing was staged.” Haaretz. 22 May 2008. http://www.haaretz.com/print-edition/news/court-backs-claim-that-al-dura-killing-was-staged-1.246313. The Israeli government has stayed out of this case and others connected to al-Dura’s killing.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/al-dura-mohammad

al-Husseini, Faisal

(1940-2001) A Palestinian political figure. Active in Fatah and the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) as well as numerous other organizations, including the Arab Studies Society, the Higher Islamic Council and the Orient House. Husseini was long engaged in protesting Israeli occupation, which resulted in travel bans, imprisonment and administrative detention by successive Israeli governments. He was the first prominent Palestinian to hold talks with a senior Israeli Likud party politician (Moshe Amirav) in September 1987, and was instrumental in launching the 1991 Madrid Conference. He served as the PLO representative to Jerusalem beginning in the mid-1990s until his death in 2001. See “Faisal Husseini.” 2002. PASSIA. 24 August 2011. >http://www.passia.org/publications/bulletins/english-jerusalem/pages/page12.pdf.  http://www.justivision.org/glossary/al-husseini-faisal

al-Husseini, Hajj Amin

(1895-1974) A Palestinian religious and military figure. Born in Jerusalem in 1895, Husseini opposed British mandatory control of and Jewish immigration to Palestine. He studied religious law at Al-Azhar University in Cairo, and at the Istanbul School of Administration. In 1920, he returned to Jerusalem calling for the incorporation of Palestine into Syria. Appointed Grand Mufti of Jerusalem in May 1921 (until 1948), he led the 1928-29 campaign against the perceived threat to the Muslim holy places of Jerusalem posed by Zionists (see 1929 Riots). Husseini was elected president of the Arab Higher Committee in 1936 and as such was the chief architect of the 1936-1939 Arab Revolt/Riots, and the internal Arab conflicts of 1937. Ordered by the British authorities to be deported for inciting violence in 1937, he fled to Germany where he ran the National Leadership in exile in the late 1930s. His influence diminished by the 1940s, although he remained a voice of resistance through the time of Israel’s establishment in 1948. He died on July 5, 1974 in Beirut. See “Palestinian Personalities.” June 2006. PASSIA. 10 November 2007. http://www.passia.org/palestine_facts/personalities/alpha_h.htm.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/al-husseini-hajj-amin 

Al-Issawiya

A predominantly Palestinian neighborhood located within the Jerusalem municipal boundaries, in an area often called East Jerusalem. Est. population in 2008: 13,279. For more information on the status of Al-Issawiya’s residents, see Jerusalem ID. See also Jerusalem.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/al-issawiya

Al-Jazeera

Headquartered in the nation of Qatar, this international news organization broadcasts in Arabic with a primary focus on the politics and society of the Arab World. The news organization also has a growing English news wing. See Al-Jazeera's website  at http://english.aljazeera.net.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/al-jazeera

Al-Khader

A Palestinian town in the central West Bank, located 8 km south of Jerusalem. Est. population in 2007: 5,056. In 2008, Al-Khader began holding weekly protests against Israel’s separation barrier that cuts through the village.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/al-khader

Al-Lydd/Lod

(Al-Lydd in Arabic and Lod in Hebrew) A city in central Israel, located just southeast of the city of Tel-Avi. Al Lydd/Lod is home to Ben Gurion Airport. Est. population in 2009: 67,700, predominantly Jewish Israelis but with a sizable Palestinian Arab Israeli population.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/al-lydd-lod

Al-Nakba

(Arabic for “the catastrophe) Refers to the uprooting and displacement of 700,000-800,000 Palestinians concurrently with the establishment of the State of Israel on 78% of pre-1948 Palestine, and the subsequent War of 1948. During the War of 1948, many Palestinian villages and properties were appropriated or destroyed by Israeli forces and the remaining territories were seized by Jordanian and Egyptian forces. The majority of displaced Palestinians became part of a diaspora community throughout the Arab World, either as refugees or residents. These events lead to the coining of the term Al-Nakba. Israel considers these same events to be its War of Independence, rejects the term Al-Nakba, and maintains that Israel acted in self-defense and that Palestinians were not expelled. United Nations Resolution 194 stipulated that refugees be allowed to return to their homes and lands and that the responsible governments should compensate all refugees for any destroyed property or for properties the refugees do not choose to return to; for the most part, Israel has ignored this resolution. Al-Nakba Day is commemorated annually on the 15th of May. See also 1948, Independence Day and War of 1948. See Morris, Benny. The Birth of the Palestinian Refugee Problem Revisited. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004; Pappe Ilan. The Ethnic Cleansing of Palestine. Oxford: Oneworld Publications, 2006; Khalidi, Walid. All That Remains: The Palestinian Villages Occupied and Depopulated by Israel in 1948. Washington, DC: Institute for Palestine Studies, 2006; and The Khalil Sakakini Cultural Center’s website on Al-Nakba at http://www.alnakba.org.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/al-nakba

al-Qassam, Izz ad-Din

(1882-1935) A Syrian-Palestinian religious and militant figure. Qassam was a key figure in the 1921 Syrian revolt against the French rule of Greater Syria after World War I and fled to the city of Haifa in British mandate Palestine after the French besieged parts of Syria. In Palestine, he preached among the Palestinian lower classes, gathering a large following among landless ex-tenant farmers who had lost their livelihoods due to purchases of agricultural land by the Jewish National Fund as well as exclusionary labor policies. Qassam was later appointed the religious leader of a mosque and the marriage registrar of the Muslim Sharia court in Haifa by the Mufti of Jerusalem Hajj Mohammad Amin al-Husayni. In 1930, he formed the Black Hand, which was responsible for the killing of Jewish settlers and armed attacks against the British. The Black Hand’s assaults against the British severed cooperation between Qassam and the Mufti, who was committed to diplomacy with the British at that time. In 1935, Qassam was killed by the British. The militant arm of Hamas is named after Qassam. See Milton-Edwards, Beverly. Islamic Politics in Palestine. London: I.B. Tauris & Co. Ltd, 1999.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/izz-ad-din-al-qassam

Al-Quds Newspaper

An independent Palestinian, Arabic-language newspaper based in Jerusalem. In 2006, it had an estimated circulation of 20,000. See the newspaper's website at http://www.alquds.com. For a description of the paper in English, see “The Palestinian Press.” BBC. 13 December 2006. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/6176691.stm. http://www.justvision.org/glossary/al-quds-newspaper

al-Rantisi, Abdel Aziz

(1947-2004) A Palestinian political figure. In 1987, Rantisi and others founded Hamas. One of the leading figures in Hamas during the First Intifada, he was detained numerous times by Israeli security forces before being expelled to Lebanon from 1992-1993. He returned to the Occupied Palestinian Territories after the Oslo Process began, and by 1999 was the effective political head of Hamas. He was appointed as the leader of Hamas after Sheikh Ahmad Yassin was assassinated by an Israeli missile strike in March 2004. Rantisi was a proponent of suicide bombings against Israel and had publicly called for the destruction of the State of Israel. The Israeli Airforce assassinated him in April 2004. See Fischbach, Michael R. “Rantisi, Abd al-Aziz.” Philip Mattar, ed. Encyclopedia of the Palestinians. New York: Facts on File, 2005.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/al-rantisi-abdel-aziz

al-Wazir, Khalil

(1935-1988) Also known as Abu Jihad. A Palestinian political and military figure. He helped found Fatah in 1959, set up the Palestinian movement’s first office in Kuwait, and conducted military training for Fatah fighters. He was also a high-ranking member of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), serving as its Deputy Commander-in-Chief of Palestinian forces. Wazir is well-known for developing underground militant cells in the West Bank and Gaza and for organizing the PLO’s defense against Israel’s invasion of Beirut, Lebanon in 1982. In 1988, Israeli agents assassinated him in Tunis, Tunisia. See “EL-WAZIR, KHALIL (Abu Jihad) (1935-1988).” PASSIA. 21 July 2011. http://www.passia.org/palestine_facts/personalities/alpha_w.htm.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/al-wazir-khalil 

Alfei Menashe

A Jewish Israeli settlement in the northern West Bank, located just outside the Palestinian city of Qalqilia. Est. population in 2009: 6,800.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/alfei-menashe

Aliyah

(Hebrew for “ascent”) Traditionally used to describe the act of a Jew moving to Eretz Yisrael, or the biblical land of Israel. In modern Israeli history, Aliyah refers to the various waves of immigration to what is now the State of Israel, beginning with the First Aliyah of 1882 to Palestine. From the 1880s to the end of World War II, Palestine experienced five major waves of Aliyah, and another major influx following the war. Since the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948, Israel has codified encouragement of Aliyah to Diaspora Jews in the Law of Return, a policy which was justified by the need to provide a safe haven to Jews who suffered persecution and anti-semitism in the Diaspora. Today, any Jew can perform Aliyah and become a citizen of the State of Israel. See also Law of Return. See Kumaraswamy, P.R. “Aliya.” Historical Dictionary of the Arab-Israeli Conflict. Oxford: The Scarecrow Press, 2006. http://www.justvision.org/glossary/aliyah

Allon Shevut

A Jewish Israeli settlement in the southern West Bank, located between the Palestinian cities of Bethlehem and Hebron. Est. population in 2009: 3,300. http://www.justvision.org/glossary/allon-shevut

Aloni, Shulamit

A Jewish Israeli political figure. Aloni was first elected to the Israeli parliament in 1965 as a member of the Labor party and was dropped from the Labor party election list in 1969 due to disagreements with party general-secretary Golda Meir. After officially resigning from Labor in 1973, she founded the Ratz party, which merged into the Meretz party in 1992. During the 1980s, she advocated for direct negotiations with the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) and participated in meetings with the PLO as a member of the International Center for Peace in the Middle East. Between 1992 and 1995, she served in the positions of Minister of Education, Minister of Communications and Minster of Science and Culture. In 1996, she retired from the Israeli parliament and has since then taught at various Israeli universities. She has repeatedly spoken publicly against Israeli violations of Palestinian human rights and continues to call for the construction of an Israeli Bill of Rights. See Chazan, Naomi. “Shulamit Aloni.” Jewish Women’s Archive. 9 December 2011. http://jwa.org/encyclopedia/article/aloni-shulamit.

Anarchists Against the Wall

Established in 2002, this  Israeli  activist group opposes Israel’s construction of the Separation Barrier as well as Israel’s occupation of the Palestinian Territories. To demonstrate solidarity with Palestinians, these activists participate in Palestinian-led demonstrations and acts of civil disobedience in various Palestinian villages throughout the West Bank.  See the group’s website at http://www.awalls.org/.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/anarchists-against-wall 

Anata

A Palestinian town in the central West Bank, located 4km west of the Jerusalem municipal boundary. Estimated population in 2007: 12,049. Beginning in 2007, Anata held protests against Israel’s Separation Barrier that cuts through the town. See Jerusalem.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/anata 

Anti-Semitism

Semitic refers to a particular branch of Afroasiatic languages, including Hebrew, Arabic, and Amharic. Anti-semitism is most commonly used in reference to discrimination against and hatred toward Jews as an ethnic and/or religious group. See online: “anti-Semitism.” Encyclopedia Britannica Online. 8 June 2011. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/27646/anti-Semitism.   http://www.justvision.org/glossary/anti-semitism

April 2002 Israeli Military Incursion/Operation Defensive Shield

An Israeli military incursion into the West Bank from March 29-April 21, 2002, which Israel launched after a Palestinian suicide bombing on March 27 that killed 28 people at a Passover seder in a hotel in the city of Netanya. This incursion was the largest Israeli military operation in the West Bank since the War of 1967 and included invasions of the Palestinian cities of Nablus, Qalqilia, Bethlehem and Jenin (see Jenin Invasion). Accusations that the Israeli military engaged in immoral or illegal military actions were commonplace among Palestinians and their supporters, while the Israeli government and many mainstream media sources portrayed the operation as a defense of the State of Israel. Per international law standards, the Israeli army employed several illegal tactics during the incursion, such as using Palestinians as human shields, refusing to allow humanitarian and medical assistance into some areas, and demolishing Palestinian homes. For reports on human rights abuses committed during the incursion, see “Operation Defensive Shield: Soldiers’ Testimonies.” B’Tselem. 2 September 2004 http://www.btselem.org/sites/default/files/publication/200207_defensive_shield_eng.pdf; and “Israel and the Occupied Territories: Shielded from Scrutiny: IDF Violations in Jenin and Nablus.” Amnesty International. 4 November 2002 http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/info/MDE15/143/2002.  For the Israeli government’s coverage of the incursion, see “Operation Defensive Shield.” 29 March 2002. Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 8 August 2011. http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/MFAArchive/2000_2009/2002/3/Operation%20Defensive%20Shieldhttp://www.justvision.org/glossary/april-2002-israeli-military-incursion-operation-defensive-shield

Arab League

Also known as the League of Arab States. Founded in 1945, the Arab League consists of 22 member-states. It is headquartered in Cairo, Egypt.  According to Article II of the Arab League Charter, its purpose is to strengthen “the relations between the member-states, the coordination of their policies in order to achieve co-operation between them and to safeguard their independence and sovereignty; and a general concern with the affairs and interests of the Arab countries.” See Ziring, Lawrence. The Middle East: A Political Dictionary. Denver: Western Michigan University, 1992; and “Profile: Arab League.” 9 March 2011. BBC. 21 July 2011. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/country_profiles/1550797.stmhttp://www.justvision.org/glossary/arab-league 

Arab Peace Initiative

Also referred to as the Saudi Peace Plan and Abdullah Plan. On March 27, 2002, participants of the Arab League summit in Beirut adopted the Saudi-proposed Arab Peace Initiative, calling for “full Israeli withdrawal from all the Arab territories occupied since June 1967, in implementation of [United Nations (UN)] Security Council Resolutions 242 and 338… and Israel’s acceptance of an independent Palestinian state with East Jerusalem as its capital, in return for the establishment of normal relations in the context of a comprehensive peace with Israel.” The plan also called for the right to return of Palestinian refugees to their homeland inside the State of Israel, referencing UN General Assembly Resolution 194 but not specifying numbers. In return, the initiating Arab states offered an end to the Arab-Israeli conflict, security and stability between nations in the region as well as normalized relations with Israel. In Israel, the Initiative was overshadowed by a suicide bombing by Hamas’ military wing in the Israeli city of Netanya on the same day of the Initiative’s adoption, which left 19 dead and 172 injured. Internationally, the Road Map to peace, which was drawn up by the UN, the United States, the European Union and Russia, endorsed the Initiative in 2003. Left to the wayside for several years, Arab League voted to renew its commitment to the plan in 2007, though Palestinian Prime Minister Ismail Haniyeh of Hamas abstained. Still extremely controversial in Israel, Israeli Prime Minster Ehud Olmert responded favorably to much of the plan, expressing readiness to negotiate on many of its points, but stressed Israel’s refusal to negotiate on the refugee issue. In late 2008, the Palestinian Authority took out ads in major Israeli newspapers to promote the Initiative, and supported major issues being decided by Palestinians, as opposed to the Arab League, in direct negotiations with Israel. See Kumaraswamy, P.R. “Abdullah Plan.” Historical Dictionary of the Arab-Israeli Conflict. Oxford: The Scarecrow Press, 2006; Teitelbaum, Joshua. ‘Arab Peace Initiative: A Primer and Future Prospects’, Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs (2009). http://www.jcpa.org/text/Arab-Peace- Initiative.pdf">http://www.jcpa.org/text/Arab-Peace-http://www.jcpa.org/text/Arab-Peace- Initiative.pdf"> Initiative.pdf; Al-Kadi, Alia. “The Arab Peace Initiative for Peace.” The Atkins Paper Series. June 2010. http://icsr.info/publications/papers/1283531151ICSRAtkinPaperSeries_AliaAlKadi.pdf; and Prusher, Ilene R. “Israel shows new openness to Saudi Peace Plan.” Christian Science Monitor. 16 May 2007. http://www.csmonitor.com/2007/0516/p07s02-wome.html;  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/arab-peace-initiative

Arafat, Yasser

(1929-2004) A Palestinian political and military figure. In 1959, he became one of the founders of the Palestinian Fatah movement. Arafat served as Chairman of the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) from 1969 to 2004. He oversaw political and guerrilla activities of the PLO first from Jordan, then Lebanon and later Tunisia. In 1996, he became the first elected President of the Palestinian Authority, which has governing authority over certain parts of the West Bank and Gaza; Arafat held this position until his death in 2004. In a speech at the United Nations (UN) General Assembly in December 1988, Arafat stated his willingness to accept Palestinian statehood based on UN Resolution 242—a resolution that recognizes the rights of all states to sovereignty. Many viewed this as the beginning of the PLO’s recognition of the right of the State of Israel to exist. He launched the Oslo Process with Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin in 1993, for which he received a Nobel Peace Prize in 1994 along with Rabin and Israeli political figure Shimon Peres. Arafat became increasingly marginalized by the United States and Israel after the Second Intifada, and was isolated completely from diplomatic relations in 2003. Arafat died on November 11, 2004 in Percy military hospital in Paris. See “Arafat, Yasir.” Philip Mattar, ed. Encyclopedia of the Palestinians. New York: Facts on File, 2005; and Nwazota, Kristina. “Yasser Arafat: 1929-2004.” PBS Online News Hour. 15 July 2011. http://www.pbs.org/newshour/biography_pages/arafat/biography.html.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/arafat-yasser 

Areas A, B, C

Administrative divisions of the Occupied Palestinian Territories as outlined in the 1995 Oslo II Accords between Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization (see Oslo Process). Area A, according to the Accords, consists of land under full civilian and security control by the Palestinian Authority (PA). Area B is Israeli controlled but PA administered, while Area C is controlled entirely by the Israeli government, with authority over both civil administration and police. Areas B and C constitute the majority of the territory, comprised mostly of rural areas, while urban areas - where the majority of the Palestinian population resides - are mostly Area A. Israeli security forces control borders between Areas A, B and C. After Israel's withdrawal of Jewish Israeli settlements from Gaza in 2005 (see Gaza Disengagement), these areas no longer exist in Gaza. Also, despite the designation of distinct areas and Israel's Gaza Disengagement, the entire territory of the West Bank, East Jerusalem and Gaza Strip is still considered occupied by Israel. See Fischbach, Michael R. “Oslo Agreements.” Philip Mattar, ed. Encyclopedia of the Palestinians. New York: Facts on File, 2005 and Brown, Nathan J. Palestinian Politics After the Oslo Accords: Resuming Arab Palestine. Los Angeles and Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003; and “the Oslo Interim Agreement.” MidEast Web. 5 November 2011. http://www.mideastweb.org/meosint.htm.  For a map delineating Areas A, B, and C in the West Bank, see http://www.btselem.org/sites/default/files2/20110612_btselem_map_of_wb_eng.pdf.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/areas-a-b-c

Arik Institute

The Arik Institute for Reconciliation, Tolerance and Peace is an Israeli nonprofit organization established in 2004 by Yitzhak Frankenthal, after his son Arik was killed while serving in the Israeli army. The Institute aims to “resolve the reactions of repression and denial among both the Israeli and Palestinian populations”, namely the Israeli denial of the occupation of the Palestinian Territories and the Palestinian denial of needing to assure Israelis that they want to live side-by-side in peace. See the Institute’s website at http://www.arikpeace.org/Eng/. http://www.justvision.org/glossary/arik-institute 

Ashdod

A city in southern Israel on the Mediterranean Sea, located 32 km south of the city of Tel Aviv. Est. population in 2009: 210,500, predominantly Jewish Israelis. http://www.justvision.org/glossary/ashdod

Ashkelon

A city in southern Israel on the Mediterranean Sea, located south of the city of Tel Aviv and 10 km north of the Gaza Strip. Est. population in 2009: 111,000, predominantly Jewish Israelis. http://www.justvision.org/glossary/ashkelon

Ashkenazi Jews

Jews of Eastern European and Yiddish-speaking origin and heritage. Along with Sephardic Jews, Ashkenazi Jews (or Ashkenazim) make up one of the two major ethno-cultural branches of Judaism. Ashkenazim and Sephardim maintain many different religio-cultural traditions. See Shira, Schoenberg. “Ashkenazim.” Jewish Virtual Library. 13 June 2011. http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Judaism/Ashkenazim.html.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/ashkenazi-jews 

Ashrawi, Hanan

(1946- ) A Palestinian politician, professor and spokeswoman. In 1973, she established the English Department at Bir Zeit University and still occasionally teaches there. In regards to her political career, Ashrawi was a member of the Palestinian negotiation team at the 1991 Madrid Conference and during the Oslo Process. She has served on the Palestinian Legislative Council several times and in 2005, switched party membership from Fatah to the Palestinian National Initiative (Mubadara). In addition to serving on the boards of several international organizations, she also heads Miftah, the Palestinian Initiative for the promotion of Global Dialogue and Democracy. See “Hanan Ashrawi.” Jewish Virtual Library. 18 July 2011. http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/biography/ashrawi.htmlhttp://www.justvision.org/glossary/ashrawi-hanan 

Association for Civil Rights in Israel (ACRI)

Established in 1972, ACRI is the oldest Israeli human rights organization and deals with rights and civil liberties issues both in Israel and the Occupied Palestinian Territories. With the goal of ensuring Israel’s accountability and respect for human rights, ACRI takes on legal cases, conducts domestic human rights education, and contributes to international advocacy through various governmental and organizational relationships. See the organization’s website at http://www.acri.org.il/en.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/association-civil-rights-israel-acri 

Avnery, Uri

(1923- ) A Jewish Israeli political figure and peace activist. Founder of Gush Shalom (Hebrew for "Peace Bloc"), an activist peace group founded in 1993. The group was named in reference to - and in contrast to - the settler movement Gush Emunim, "Bloc of the Faithful". Avnery also served three terms as a member of the Israeli parliament. See “Ury Avnery - Biography.” Gush Shalom. 21 July 2011. http://zope.gush-shalom.org/home/en/about/1177150070http://www.justvision.org/glossary/avnery-uri

Awad, Mubarak

(1943- ) A prominent Palestinian American advocate for nonviolent resistance to the Israeli occupation and leader during the First Intifada, Awad was deported to Washington by the Israeli government in 1988. He is currently an Adjunct Professor of International Peace and Conflict Resolution at The American University in Washington, D.C. See King, Mary Elizabeth. A Quiet Revolution: The First Palestinian Intifada and Nonviolent Resistance. New York: Nation Books, 2007; and “Mubarak Awad.” American University. 21 July 2011. http://www.american.edu/sis/faculty/mawad.cfmhttp://www.justvision.org/glossary/awad-mubarak

Ayalon, Ami

(1945- ) A Jewish Israeli military, intelligence and political figure. Ayalon was a career naval officer, holding the position of Commander of the Israeli Navy from 1992-1996. Following Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin’s assassination in 1995, he became the head of Shin Bet, Israel’s internal security agency, retiring in 2000. In 2002, he co-authored the People’s Voice Initiative, a civilian initiative meant to demonstrate Israeli and Palestinian support for the two-state solution and other stated principles. Ayalon was elected to the Israeli parliament as a member of the Labor party in 2006 and served until he lost his seat in the 2009 elections. He is currently the Chairman of the Executive Committee of the University of Haifa. See “Ami Ayalon appointed Chairman of the Executive Committee.” University of Haifa. 19 January 2011. http://newmedia-eng.haifa.ac.il/?p=4370.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/ayalon-ami

Az-Zawiya

A Palestinian village in the northern West Bank, located 15 km west of the city of Salfit and just east of the Green Line. Est. population in 2007: 770. Beginning in 2004, Az-Zawiya held regular protests against Israel’s Separation Barrier that cuts through the village.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/az-zawiya

Azzoun

A Palestinian town in the northern West Bank, located east of the city of Qalqilia. Est. population in 2007: 7,821. In 2005, Azzoun began holding demonstrations against Israel’s Separation Barrier that cuts through the town; the Israeli Hight Court ruled in 2006, and again in 2009, for the Israeli government to reroute to barrier in Azzoun and pay compensation to the villagers.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/azzoun 

Azzoun Atme

A Palestinian village in the northern West Bank, located 2km from the Green Line and 11km south of the Palestinian city of Qalqilia. Est. population in 2007: 1,771. Azzoun Atme is on the the western side of Israel’s Separation Barrier and is surrounded by Jewish Israeli settlements; its residents need Israeli-issued permits to pass through the two entrances of the village. Beginning in 2007, Azzoun Atme began holding demonstrations against the Separatin Barrier.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/azzoun-atme

B'Tselem

(Hebrew for “In the image of”) The organization’s Hebrew name is a biblical reference to man’s creation in the image of God. Founded in 1989, B’Tselem is the largest Israeli human rights organization and documents human rights abuses in the Occupied Palestinian Territories, with the goal of educating the Israeli public and policymakers as well as building a human rights culture in Israel. The organization is officially known as "The Israeli Information Center for Human Rights in the Occupied Territories." See B’Tselem’s website at http://www.btselem.org.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/btselem 

Baka Al-Gharbiyah

A town in northern Israel that, in 2003, was united with the village of Jatt and is now called Baka Jatt. Est. population of Baka Jatt in 2009: 34,800, predominantly Palestinian Arab citizens of Israel. Baka Al-Gharbiyah is located along Israel’s Separation Barrier.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/baka-al-gharbiyah

Baka Al-Sharkiyah

A Palestinian town in the northern West Bank, located 16 km north of the city of Tulkarem and along the Green Line. Est. population in 2007: 4,101. Baka Al-Sharkiyah is located along Israel’s Separation Barrier.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/baka-al-sharkiyah

Balfour Declaration

A diplomatic declaration in the form of a letter, dated November 29, 1917, from Foreign Minister Arthur Balfour to Lord Rothschild. The letter expressed the British Government’s support for “the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people.”  The Declaration is at odds with British territorial commitments to the Arabs as laid out in the McMahon-Hussein correspondence, which seemed to pledge post-World War I Arab sovereignty over much of the region including Palestine, as well as with the secret and concurrent Sykes-Picot treaty with France. The Declaration became the basis for the British mandate of Palestine after World War I, justifying British support for a Jewish national homeland in Palestine and conflicting with Palestinian Arab hopes for national independence. See Ovendale, Ritchie. The Middle East Since 1914. London: Longman, 1998; Wasserstein, Bernard. The British in Palestine: The Mandatory Government & the Arab-Jewish Conflict 1917-1929. London: Blackwell, 1991. See the full text of the letter at “The Balfour Declaration.” Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs. http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/Peace%20Process/Guide%20to%20the%20Peace%20Process/The%20Balfour%20Declaration.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/balfour-declaration

Barak, Ehud

(1942- ) A Jewish Israeli military and political figure. Barak joined the Israeli army in 1959, reaching the position of Lt. General - the highest rank of the Israeli military - in 1991. As Lt. General, he was involved in Israel’s peace treaty with Jordan in 1994 as well as meetings with his Syrian counterpart during Syrian-Israeli negotiations around the same time. As member of the Labor party, Barak entered politics in 1995 and first served as Minister of the Interior and then Minister of Foreign Affairs from 1995-1996. He was elected Prime Minister of Israel in 1999 and participated in the Camp David II Talks with the Palestinian Authority. Barak left politics for a few years after the Likud party’s Ariel Sharon defeated him in special prime ministerial elections in February 2001. In June 2007, he won the Labor primaries and became Defense Minister. He has continued in that post ever since, breaking away from the Labor party in 2011, along with four other Labor party ministers, to form the Independence party and keep the  Likud-led government from breaking apart. See Kumaraswamy, P.R. “Barak, Ehud.” Historical Dictionary of the Arab-Israeli Conflict. Oxford: The Scarecrow Press, 2006; ”Ehud Barak.” Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 17 June 2011. http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/MFAArchive/2000_2009/2001/3/Ehud+Barak.htm; and “Ehud Barak quits Israel’s Labour to form new party.” BBC. 17 January 2011. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-12204321.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/barak-ehud

Barghouti, Marwan

(1959- ) A Palestinian political and military figure. A longtime member of Fatah, he lived in the Occupied Palestinian Territories while much of Fatah’s leadership was in the Diaspora. Barghouti was a key leader during the First Intifada, for which he was deported by Israel to Jordan. Following the signing of the Oslo Accords in 1994, he returned to the West Bank and was elected to the Palestinian Legislative Council in 1996. Originally a supporter of the Oslo Process, Barghouti became disenchanted with ties between the Palestinian Authority (PA) and Israel. During the Second Intifada, he was the head of Fatah’s Tanzim militia and led several marches in protest of Israeli occupation. Israel arrested Barghouti in 2002 under allegations that he was leading the Palestinian militant group al-Aqsa Martyrs’ Brigade. Barghouti is currently serving five consecutive life-sentences in Israeli prison, after being tried on 26 murder charges as well as membership in what Israel regards as a terrorist organization. He was believed by many to be a contender for the leadership of the PA following Yasser Arafat’s death, but eventually decided to withdraw his candidacy for the 2005 presidential elections. In 2009, while still in prison, he was elected to Fatah’s Central Committee. See Fischbach, Michael R. “Barghuthi, Marwan.” Philip Mattar, ed. Encyclopedia of the Palestinians. New York: Facts on File, 2005; and “Profile: Marwan Barghouti.” 26 November 2009. BBC. 27 June 2011. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/1473585.stmhttp://www.justvision.org/glossary/barghouti-marwan

Barghouti, Mustafa

(1954- ) A Palestinian doctor and political figure. Barghouti has been active in establishing health programs throughout the Occupied Palestinian Territories, such as the Union of Palestinian Medical Relief Committees. Politically, he was a longtime figure in the Palestine People’s Party. and participated in the Madrid Conference in 1991. In 2004, he co-founded the Palestinian National Initiative (Mubadara) and currently sits as the party’s Secretary .Barghouti served as the Minister of Information in the short-lived Palestinian national unity government from March-June 2007. Since then, he has played a key role in facilitating internal political negotiations surrounding Palestinian unity talks, including the April 2011 unity agreement between Hamas, Fatah and other Palestinian parties. See ”Profile: Mustafa Barghouti.” 10 January 2005. BBC. 27 June 2011. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/4152657.stm; and Kutsh, Tom. “An Insider’s view of the Palestinian unity deal.” Foreign Policy. 6 May 2011. http://mideast.foreignpolicy.com/posts/2011/05/06/taking_stock_of_the_palestinian_unity_deal.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/barghouti-mustafa

Basic Laws

A set of laws adopted by the Israeli parliament (the Knesset). Following the adoption of the Hariri Proposal in 1950, in which the Constituent Assembly and first Knesset were unable to draft a constitution, Israeli lawmakers and politicians began work on legislation for the basic laws. These laws, which have been adopted over six decades, cover various subjects such as Jerusalem, ownership of land, the army, the state economy, the judiciary and other essential legal matters. The special role of the Basic Laws is still unclear in the Israeli judicial system, with ambiguity as to whether a basic law supersedes other laws, although many lawmakers argue that Basic Laws are constitutionally superior. According to the Israeli parliament’s website: “After all the basic laws will be enacted, they will constitute together, with an appropriate introduction and several general rulings, the constitution of the State of Israel.” See “Basic Laws: Introduction.” 2003. The Knesset. 15 July 2008. http://www.knesset.gov.il/description/eng/eng_mimshal_yesod.htm.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/basic-laws

Bat Shalom

An Israeli national feminist organization founded in 1993 and comprising Jewish and Palestinian Israeli women. Bat Shalom seeks to advance "a genuine peace grounded in a just resolution of the Israel-Palestine conflict, respect for human rights, and an equal voice for Jewish and Arab women within Israeli society." Bat Shalom often works in partnership with the Jerusalem Center for Women, a Palestinian feminist organization. See the organization’s website at http://batshalom.org.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/bat-shalom

Be'er Sheva/Ber Al-Sabe'

(Be’er Sheva in Hebrew and Ber al-Sabe’ in Arabic) A city in southern Israel in the Negev Desert. It is Israel’s fourth largest city and home to Ben Gurion University. Est. population in 2009: 187,800, predominantly Jewish Israelis. There is a large Bedouin population in surrounding areas.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/beer-shevaber-al-sabe

Bedouin

Derived from the Arabic term “badawi” (Arabic for “desert-dweller”), Bedouin is a general name for Arab nomadic groups. Once characterized by a nomadic and rural lifestyle, the Bedouins in Israel have largely become sedentary as a result of Israeli government policies, which, since the 1960s have aimed to settle the Bedouin population in planned communities. Two major disputes between the Bedouin communities and the State of Israel persist: land ownership—many Bedouin do not have ownership papers for the land on which they have traditionally lived—and unrecognized villages. Unrecognized villages are villages that generally predate the existence of Israel but are not officially recognized by Israel; as a result, these villages do not have state support for basic services and infrastructure. The approximate 170,000 Bedouin population in Israel, half of whom live in unrecognized villages, resides primarily in the Negev desert and the northern region of the Galilee. The Bedouin of the Negev is Israel’s most impoverished group, with the highest rates of unemployment. See Kimmerling, Baruch and Joel S. Migdal. The Palestinian People: a History. London: Harvard University Press, 2003; Lynfield, Ben. “In Israel’s Desert, A Fight for Land.” 20 February 2003. The Christian Science Monitor. 21 July 2011. http://www.csmonitor.com/2003/0220/p06s01-wome.html; and ”Negev Bedouins - Info Sheet.” 5 February 2009. The Association for Civil Rights in Israel. 18 June 2011. http://www.acri.org.il/en/?p=608.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/bedouin

Begin, Menachem

(1913–92) A Jewish Israeli political and military figure of Russian and Polish origin. Begin immigrated to Palestine via subscription in the Polish army in 1942. He was a primary political leader of the Revisionist Zionist movement and served as a commander in the Irgun, an underground Jewish paramilitary group that operated prior to Israel’s establishment. Begin and others founded the Herut party (the precursor to Likud) after Israel’s establishment in 1948 and he officially entered politics as a member of the Israeli parliament beginning with the first elections. In 1977, as head of the Likud party, Begin was elected Prime Minister of Israel and held the position until 1982. While in office, he negotiated a peace treaty with Egyptian President Anwar Sadat that led to Israel’s withdrawal from the Sinai Peninsula in exchange for Egypt’s recognition of Israel as a legitimate state (see Camp David), and was co-recipient of the 1978 Nobel Peace Prize with Sadat. During his prime ministership, Begin also authorized the Israeli Air Force to bomb the Osirak nuclear reactor in Iraq, out of concern that Iraq was developing nuclear weapons, and launched the 1982 invasion of Lebanon (see War of 1982). He is known as well for advancing the Jewish Israeli settlement movement in the Occupied Palestinian Territories. See “Begin, Menachem.” Reich, Bernard, ed. Political Leaders of the Contemporary Middle East and North Africa: A Biographical Dictionary. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1990; and “The Nobel Peace Prize 1978: Menachem Begin.” Nobelprize.org. 2 September 2011. http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/laureates/1978/begin-bio.htmlhttp://www.justvision.org/glossary/begin-menachem

Beilin, Yossi

(1948- ) A Jewish Israeli media and political figure. Beilin worked at the Israeli newspaper Davar from 1969-1977. He left media to become the spokesperson of the Labor party. Entering the Israeli parliament in 1988, he served for 11 years and then held the position of Minister of Justice from 2000-2001. Beilin was instrumental in the early stages of the Oslo Process and is one of the authors of the non-governmental, non-binding Israeli-Palestinian Geneva Accord. In 2004, he left the Labor party and joined the Meretz party, serving in the Israeli parliament again from 2006-2008. Though he left politics all together in 2008, he is still involved with the Geneva Initiative. See “Dr. Yossi Beilin.” The Geneva Initiative. 18 June 2011. http://www.geneva-accord.org/mainmenu/dr-yossi-beilin; and Somfavi, Attila. “Meretz’ Beilin retiring from politics.” Ynet News. 28 October 2008. http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-3614514,00.html.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/beilin-yossi

Beinisch, Dorit

A Jewish Israeli legal figure. Beinisch began her legal career in the Jerusalem District Attorney’s Office. Serving in the Attorney General’s office in different capacities from 1976-1988, she was appointed Attorney General in 1989. Appointed to the Israeli High Court in 1995, Beinisch was elected Chief Justice of the High Court in 2006, the first woman ever to hold that position. As Chief Justice, Beinisch ruled in 2007 that some of the route of the Separation Barrier near the Palestinian village of Bil’in was not entirely based on security concerns and therefore needed to be moved. See “Dorit Beinisch.” Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 9 December 2011. http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/Government/Personalities/From+A-Z/Dorit++Beini... and “Court orders state to alter West Bank separation fence route at Bil’in.” Haaretz. 4 September 2007. http://www.haaretz.com/news/court-orders-state-to-alter-west-bank-separa....

Beit Hanina

A Palestinian town, most of which is located within the Jerusalem municipal boundaries (in an area called East Jerusalem) and a smaller portion located in the West Bank. Est. population in 2007: 29,027. Residents in the Jerusalem portion of Beit Hanina carry Jerusalem IDs. See Jerusalem and Jerusalem ID.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/beit-hanina

Beit Hanoun

A Palestinian city in the northeastern Gaza Strip. Est. population in 2007: 38,047. Beit Hanoun is the main crossing between Israel and Gaza.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/beit-hanoun 

Beit Iksa

A Palestinian village in the central West Bank, located just northwest of the Jerusalem municipal boundaries and just north of the Green Line. Est. population in 2007: 1,895, 80% of whom are registered refugees with the United Nations. Beit Iksa is surrounded by Jewish Israeli settlements and Israel’s Separation Barrier cuts through the village. Its residents have only one entrance through which to enter.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/beit-iksa

Beit Jala

A Palestinian city in the central West Bank, located on the western outskirts of the city of Bethlehem and 5 km south of Jerusalem. Est. population in 2007: 11,758. http://www.justvision.org/glossary/beit-jala

Beit Safafa

A Palestinian village in the southern portion of the Jerusalem municipality, in an area called East Jerusalem. Just Vision cannot find recent or reliable population statistics for Beit Safafa specifically; please see http://jiis.org/.upload/web%20C1409.pdf. Many of Beit Safafa's residents carry Jerusalem IDs. See Jerusalem and Jerusalem ID. http://www.justvision.org/glossary/beit-safafa

Beit Sahour

A Palestinian city in the southern West Bank, located just east of the city of Bethlehem. Est. population in 2007: 12,367. http://ww.justvision.org/glossary/beit-sahour

Beit Ummar

A Palestinian village in the southern West Bank, located just north of the city of Hebron. Est. population in 2007: 13,548. The Israeli government confiscated many acres of Beit Ummar's land for the establishment of Jewish settlements. Est. population in 2007: 13,548. In 2006, Beit Ummar began more regularly protesting the confiscation of their land. http://www.justvision.org/glossary/beit-ummar

Beitar

Founded in the 1920s, Beitar is a Zionist youth movement in Israel and throughout the Jewish Diaspora. Beitar was shaped by the ideas and worldview of Ze'ev Jabotinsky, and is politically affiliated with the Likud party. Some of its activities include summer camps, Israel tours and the promotion and facilitation of the official immigration of Jews to Israel. See “Youth Movements.” Jewish Virtual Library. 10 June 2011. http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Society_&_Culture/Youth.html.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/beitar

Ben Gurion University

An Israeli university in southern Israel, located in the city of Be’er Sheva/Ber Al-Sabe.’ See the university’s website at http://in.bgu.ac.il/en/.

Ben-Eliezer, Binyamin

(1936- ) A Jewish Israeli political and military figure of Iraqi origin. Ben-Eliezer immigrated to Israel in 1949. A career officer in the military, he served as a commander in the Wars of 1967 and 1973 and the 1982 Lebanon War. He also served as Military Governor of Judea and Samaria (the West Bank) from 1978-1981. Ben-Eliezer entered politics in 1984 as a member of the Labor party, serving in many ministerial positions until his resignation in January 2011. While Minister of Defense from 2001-2002, he was a strong proponent of Israel’s military offensive in the West Bank, including the Israeli army’s operation in the Jenin refugee camp (see Jenin Invasion). See “Benjamin Ben-Eliezer.” Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 17 June 2011. http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/MFAArchive/2000_2009/2002/11/Benjamin%20Ben-El...  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/ben-eliezer-binyamin

Ben-Gurion, David

(1886-1973) A Jewish Israeli political figure of Polish origin. He immigrated to Palestine in 1906 and became a leader in the Labor Zionist movement. He spent a few years in the United States after the outbreak of World War I and then returned to Palestine as part of the Jewish Legion of the British army. Prior to Israel's establishment, Ben-Gurion served as secretary-general of the Histadrut, a Jewish trade union, and chairman of the Jewish Agency Executive, a provisional government for Jews in Palestine. Announcing Israel's independence in 1948, he became Israel’s longest serving Prime Minister (1948-1953 and 1955-1963) and was a member of the Mapai party, which later became the Labor party. Ben Gurion spearheaded an active campaign to bring Diaspora Jews into Israel and doubled its population in the first five years of its existence. He was largely responsible for forging a strong relationship with the West, especially France, the United Kingdom, the United States and Germany. In 1956, Ben-Gurion led Israel, alongside France and the UK, to war with Egypt, in an attempt to lift the siege on cargo traffic from the port at Eilat (See War of 1956). See “David Ben-Gurion.” 8 May 2003. Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 11 November 2011. http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/Facts+About+Israel/State/David+Ben-Gurion.htm.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/ben-gurion-david

Bethlehem

A Palestinian city in the southern West Bank, located about 10 kilometers south of Jerusalem. Est. population in 2007: 25,266. Home to the Church of the Nativity, the city is of particular significance for Christians who believe it is the birthplace of Jesus Christ.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/bethlehem

Bialik, Hayyim Nahman

(1873-1935) A Jewish poet of Russian origin. He immigrated to Palestine in 1924. Considered the national poet of Israel during his lifetime, Bialik's works are still popular today in Israel. See “Hayyim Nahman Bialik.” Jewish Virtual Library. 24 August 2011. http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/biography/bialik.html.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/bialik-hayyim-nahman

Biddu

A Palestinian village in the central West Bank, located just north of the Jerusalem municipal boundaries. Est. population in 2007: 6,798. Biddu is located in one of the north Jerusalem enclaves, areas where Palestinian villages are trapped between the Separation Barrier and East Jerusalem. In 2004, Biddu began holding weekly protests against the Barrier. http://www.justvision.org/glossary/biddu

Bil'in

A Palestinian village in the central West Bank, located 12 km west of the city of Ramallah. Est. population in 2007: 1,701. In 2005, Bil’in began holding weekly protests against Israel’s Separation Barrier that cut through the village. The village also began hosting annual grassroots popular resistance conferences in 2006. The Israeli High Court ordered that the Barrier in Bil’in be rerouted in 2008, giving back much of the village’s land.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/bilin

Bimkom

An Israeli nonprofit organization established by planners and architects in order to  strengthen the connection between human rights and spatial planning in Israel. Bimkom believes that urban planning must take into account civil rights and equality and works through community planning, education and outreach activities. See the the organization’s website at http://eng.bimkom.org.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/bimkom

Bir Nabala

A Palestinian village in the central West Bank, located northeast of the Jerusalem municipal boundaries. Est. population in 2008: 4,864. Bir Nabala is located in one of the north Jerusalem enclaves, areas where Palestinian villages are trapped between the Separation Barrier and East Jerusalem.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/bir-nabala

Bir Zeit University

A Palestinian university in the central West Bank, located just outside the town of Bir Zeit and north of the city of Ramallah. See the university’s website at http://www.birzeit.edu/http://www.justvision.org/glossary/bir-zeit-university

Bishara, Azmi

(1956- ) A Palestinian Arab Israeli political and intellectual figure. Prior to his entry into political life, he taught for ten years at Birzeit University in the West Bank, including heading the Philosophy and Cultural Studies Department from 1994-1996. A founder and member of the National Democratic Assembly party, also known as Balad, Bishara was elected to the Israeli parliament in 1996. In 2007, he co-authored “The Democratic Constitution,” which calls for legal and civic equality in Israel as well as “collective rights,” effectively making Israel a multicultural state and therefore at odds with its mission to be a Jewish national homeland. Bishara resigned from parliament in 2007 and is currently in self-exile after Israel opened a criminal investigation against him, claiming that he offered information to Hezbollah during Israel’s 2006 Lebanon War; Bishara has denied these accusations. In 2011, the Israeli parliament stripped him of his pension. He currently resides in Qatar and serves as the General Director of the Arab Center for Research and Policy Studies. See “A lawmaker vanishes.” The Economist. 19 April 2007. http://www.economist.com/node/9047260?story_id=E1_JDQSNGD; and Stoil, Rebecca Ann. “Knesset passes law revoking citizenship for treason.” Jerusalem Post. 28 March 2011. http://www.jpost.com/DiplomacyAndPolitics/Article.aspx?id=214202.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/bishara-azmi

Bitterlemons Publications

A total of five websites promoting dialogue amongst Israelis, Palestinians, Arabs throughout the Middle East and citizens from all over the world on topics related to the Israeli-Palestinian/Arab conflict, and the Middle East, more broadly. The first website, http://www.bitterlemons.org, was established by Jewish Israeli Yossi Alpher and Palestinian Ghassan Khatib in 2001 after the beginning of the Second Intifada. The gateway to all of the Bitterlemons’ websites is http://www.bitterlemons.net.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/bitterlemons-publications

Bnei Akiva

Hebrew for the "sons of Akiva." The name of a large, international Zionist religious youth movement that began in Jerusalem in the 1920s. Politically, the youth movement is traditionally affiliated with religious Zionist parties (like the NRP), and with the settlements movements.

Bnei Avraham

An Israeli activist group focused on the situation in the old city of Hebron (also known as H2), where the Israeli military oversees security for the over 500 Jewish Israeli settlers spread out amongst 35,000 Palestinians. Bnei Avraham believes the Israeli military ignores its duty to provide security for the Palestinian residents of H2, and therefore offers Israelis guided tours of the area and maintains a presence on the ground in an attempt to protect Palestinians from the Jewish Israeli settlers and bring media coverage of the situation. See information on the organization at http://groups.google.com/group/bnei-avraham/web/cover-page--english.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/bnei-avraham

Bnei Brak

A city in central Israel, east of the city of Tel Aviv. Est. population in 2009: 154,700, predominantly Jewish Israelis of ultra-Orthodox background.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/bnei-brak

Boycott, Divestment and Sanctions (BDS)

In 2005, Palestinian society called for a global boycott, divestment and sanctions campaign that would continue until Israel ends its military occupation of the Occupied Palestinian Territories. BDS takes on different forms and targets depending on one’s perspective. Boycott may include the boycott of goods, services, institutions, individuals and venues, while divestment targets the shares that individuals and institutions hold in Israeli and various international companies. The academic boycott targets professors speaking on behalf of Israeli universities. The cultural boycott includes the refusal of artists to perform in Israel, and may also include the boycott of Israeli artists who do not publicly criticize Israel’s military occupation of Palestinian territories. Within the global movement, particularly amongst internationals and Israelis, some focus on targeting only goods produced in Israeli settlements or divesting from companies that contribute to settlement construction or military operations in the Occupied Palestinian Territories. Some groups even promote additional investment into Israeli companies that promote coexistence and a two-state solution. Sanctions refers to economic sanctions against Israel as a state. For a full-endorsement and explanation of the movement, see Barghouti, Omar. BDS: Boycott, Divestment and Sanctions: The Global Struggle for Palestinian Rights. Chicago: Haymarket Books, 2011; and see online: http://www.bdsmovement.net/bdsintro. For a perspective on Academic and Cultural Boycoott, see also the Palestinian Campaign for the Academic & Cultural Boycott of Israel website: http://www.pacbi.org/. For a settlement/occupation-targeted and anti-sanction perspective, see Nir, Ori. APN Weighs in on BDS, Criticism of Israel. Americans for Peace Now. 23 April 2010. http://peacenow.org/entries/bds_criticism_of_israel.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/boycott-divestment-and-sanctions-bds

Breaking the Silence

An Israeli nonprofit organization of veterans who have served in the Israeli military since the beginning of the Second Intifada in 2000. The organization focuses on gathering the testimonies of Israeli soldiers who have served in the Occupied Palestinian Territories in order to open debate on the effects of the occupation on Israeli soldiers and the Palestinian population. Breaking the Silence also offers tours of the Old City of Hebron in the West Bank, where the Israeli army retains a strong presence amongst Jewish Israeli settlers and Palestinians. See the organization’s website at http://www.breakingthesilence.org.il.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/breaking-silence

British Mandate

The administrative, diplomatic and military mandate by Britain over Palestine between 1923 and 1947. Following World War I and the defeat of the Ottoman Empire, France and Britain set out to delineate spheres of influence in the Middle East. The mandate for Palestine was one of a number of mandates in the Middle East designed to formalize British and French administration in the newly formed countries of Syria, Lebanon, Iraq, Transjordan and Palestine. The British mandate over Palestine was approved by the League of Nations Council on July 24, 1922, and declared official as of September 29, 1923. The mandate continued until 1947, when Britain sought the aid of the United Nations in determining the fate of the territory, which at that time was hotly disputed by both Zionist and Palestinian and Arab nationalists, evidenced by protests and rising militancy on both sides. British de facto rule in Palestine lasted from December 1917 to June 1948. See Lesch, Ann M. “Palestine Mandate.” Philip Mattar, ed. Encyclopedia of the Palestinians. New York: Facts on File, 2005;  and A Country Study: Israel. December 1988. Library of Congress. 18 June 2011. http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/iltoc.htmlhttp://www.justvision.org/glossary/british-mandate

Budrus

A Palestinian village in the central West Bank, located 31 km northwest of the city of Ramallah and just east of the Green Line. Est. population in 2007: 1,399. Starting in 2003, Budrus held weekly protests against Israel’s Separation Barrier that cut through the village; after ten months of nonviolent demonstrations, Israel rerouted the Barrier to be closer to the Green Line.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/budrus

Building Bridges for Peace

A summer camp in the United States for Israeli, Palestinian and American teens to learn leadership, communication and peacebuilding skills. Building Bridges, a project of the organization Seeking Common Ground, also runs a two-year follow-up program for Israeli and Palestinian participants at home. See Seeking Common Ground’s description of the project at http://www.s-c-g.org/Seeking_Common_Ground/Building_Bridges_for_Peace.html.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/building-bridges-peace

Bypass Roads

Refers to roads in the West Bank that connect Jewish Israeli settlements and are reserved for Israeli use. These roads either used to be Palestinian roads that connected major Palestinian cities or are newly-built roads that bypass Palestinian areas. See “Forbidden Roads Israel’s Discriminatory Road Regime in the West Bank.” B’Tselem. August 2004 http://www.btselem.org/Download/200408_Forbidden_Roads_Eng.pdf.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/bypass-roads

Camp David

An American presidential getaway in Maryland, in the United States. In the context of the Arab-Israeli conflict, two significant events took place at Camp David, often referred to as Camp David I and Camp David II. At Camp David I (September 1978), Egyptian President Anwar Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin reached a bilateral agreement, with assistance and pressure from American President Jimmy Carter. The agreement stipulated that Israel would return the Sinai Peninsula in exchange for recognition from and peace with Egypt, thereby establishing a precedent for “land-for-peace” negotiations. In addition, the agreement called for talks between Israel, Jordan, Egypt and Palestinian representatives to create a framework for negotiations regarding the status of the West Bank and Gaza Strip. This goal was never met. Camp David II refers to the last Oslo Process-related meetings between Palestinian Authority President Yasser Arafat, Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak and American President Bill Clinton in the summer of 2000 over “final status” issues such as the settlements, Jerusalem, Palestinian statehood, the rights of Palestinian refugees and more. Negotiations broke down and no agreement was reached. The collapse of the Process was followed shortly thereafter by the Second Intifada. See Gresh, Alain and Dominique Vidal. “Camp David Accords.” The New A-Z of the Middle East. New York: IB Tauris, 2004; Swisher, Clayton E. The Truth About Camp David: The Untold Story of the Collapse of the Middle East Peace Process. New York: Nation Books, 2004; Sher, Gilead. The Israeli-Palestinian Peace Negotiations, 1999-2001: Within Reach. London & New York: Routledge, 2006; Shamir, Shimon and Bruce Maddy-Wetzman, eds. The Camp David Summit-What Went Wrong? Brighton: Sussex Academic Press, 2005; and Malley, Robert and Hussein Agha. “Camp David: The Tragedy of Errors.” New York Review of Books (August 9 2001), pp. 59-65, http://www.nybooks.com/articles/14380 http://www.justvision.org/glossary/camp-david

Checkpoints

Roadblocks or military installations used by security forces to control and restrict pedestrian movement and vehicle traffic. The Israeli army makes widespread use of checkpoints in the Occupied Palestinian Territories in order to control the movement of Palestinians between Palestinian cities and between the Occupied Palestinian Territories and Israel. Checkpoints can be large, semi-permanent structures resembling border crossings, such as the Qalandia checkpoint between Ramallah and Jerusalem or the Hawara checkpoint between Nablus and Ramallah, or small, temporary barriers on roadways or at the entrance of Palestinian villages, often referred to as “flying” checkpoints. There are currently checkpoints at the entry and exit points of most large Palestinian populated areas in the West Bank, on every major road within the West Bank, and at every crossing point between Israel and the Occupied Palestinian Territories, in addition to many smaller checkpoints within the West Bank. The Israeli security forces at a checkpoint exercise total control over movement through the checkpoint, including the authority to check the identity papers of every driver, passenger and/or pedestrian who wishes to pass through. At certain checkpoints, mostly those that delineate Areas A, B and C (See Areas A, B, C), soldiers refuse passage to all who have not obtained Israeli-issued permits. Palestinians and Israeli observers cite frequent, if not routine, incidences of delay and harassment of Palestinian civilians at checkpoints, regardless of the status of their papers. According to the Israeli army, a checkpoint is a "security mechanism to prevent the passage of terrorists from [Palestinian Authority] PA territory into Israel while maintaining both Israeli and Palestinian daily routine," used to "facilitate rapid passage of Palestinians while providing maximal security to Israeli citizens." Palestinians consider the checkpoints a major obstacle to daily life as the checkpoints prevent freedom of movement in their territory. See Keshet, Yehudit Kirstein. CheckpointWatch: Testimonies from Occupied Palestine. London: Zed Books, 2006. For facts, figures and maps, see Machsom Watch’s website at http://www.machsomwatch.org/en; and ”West Bank Movement and Access.” June 2010. United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs occupied Palestinian territory. 18 June 2011. http://www.ochaopt.org/documents/ocha_opt_movement_access_2010_06_16_english.pdf.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/checkpoints

Church of the Holy Sepulcher

Located in Jerusalem’s Old City, the Church was originally built by the mother of Emperor Constantine in 330 CE. The site is believed to mark the hill of crucifixion and the tomb of Jesus’ burial. The present church dates from the time of Crusader rule, around 1150 CE.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/church-holy-sepulcher

Church of the Nativity

Located in Bethlehem, a Palestinian city in the southern West Bank, the church is considered by many to be the birthplace of Jesus. It is a primary pilgrimage destination for most Christians. This building is the oldest standing church in the Holy Land. Originally built by Constantine’s mother in the 4th century, Emperor Justinian rebuilt the current structure around 530 CE.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/church-nativity

Civil Administration

Established by Israel in 1981 as a part of the Israeli military and what is now Civil Administration of Government Activities in the Territories, the Civil Administration oversees all civil matters for Jewish Israeli settlers and Palestinian residents in Areas C of the West Bank, as well as some administrative matters for Palestinians living in other areas of the West Bank and Gaza (see Areas A, B, C). More specifically, the Civil Administration is responsible for issuing travel permits from the West Bank and Gaza to Israel and within the West Bank, work permits for Palestinians entering Israel to work, in addition to any kind of construction permits or demolitions in Israeli settlements and on Palestinian land in Area C . See “Five Facts about the Civil Administration.” 19 May 2011. Israeli Defense Forces. 23 June 2011. http://dover.idf.il/IDF/English/News/today/2011/05/1902.htm. For a critique of the Civil Administration’s construction permit and demolition practices toward Palestinians, see “Israel: Halt Home Demolitions.” 21 June 2011. Human Rights Watch. 23 June 2011. http://www.hrw.org/en/news/2011/06/21/israel-halt-home-demolitions. See also Permits, House Demolitions and Settlements.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/civil-administration

Clinton, Bill

President of the United States from 1992-2000. Clinton was active as a broker and mediator in the various Middle East peace processes, beginning with the signing of the Declaration of Principles that launched the Oslo Process until the Camp David (II) Summit. The impact of the United States on peace in the region during this time was mixed. Certain negotiations led to peace agreements, such as those between Jordan and Israel (see Israeli-Jordanian Peace Treaty). Others fell apart, such as the negotiations between Syria and Israel, and those between the Israeli government and the Palestinian Authority at Camp David. See Golan, Galia. Israel and Palestine: Peace Plans and Proposals from Oslo to Disengagement. Princeton, NJ: Markus Wiener Publishers, 2008; and Migdalovitz, Carol. “Israel: Background and Relations with the United States.” 2 April 2009. Congressional Research Service. 22 July 2011. http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/mideast/RL33476.pdf.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/clinton-bill

Closed Military Zone

An area of land in the West Bank that the Israeli military declares off-limits to anyone but the Israeli military and those allowed to remain in the area or with permits issued by the Israeli authorities. These zones often encompass or are located near the Separation Barrier, Jewish Israeli settlements and/or Israeli military outposts. The Israeli military can also declare an area to be a closed military zone for a short period of time, which often happens in areas/cities where Palestinian protests are taking place, at Israeli military checkpoints and in areas where altercations have happened between Jewish Israeli settlers and Palestinians. See “Access Denied: Israeli measure to deny Palestinians access to land around settlements.” B’Tselem. September 2008 http://www.btselem.org/download/200809_access_denied_eng.pdf. For examples of temporary closed military zones, see Weiss, Efrat. “Hebron declared a closed military zone.” Ynet News. 17 January 2006 http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-3201313,00.html; and Hass, Amira. “IDF declares West Bank protest villages a ‘closed military zone’.” Haaretz. 15 March 2010. http://www.haaretz.com/news/idf-declares-west-bank-protest-villages-a-cl....  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/closed-military-zone

Closures

Closures are imposed by the Israeli army by and large on Palestinians in order to restrict movement in the Occupied Palestinian Territories and Israel. These restrictions include physical structures such as military checkpoints, and Israeli-enforced orders such as closed military zones and curfews. Israel claims that closures are necessary to prevent attacks against Israeli citizens, while Palestinians point to the illegality and discrimination of such closures and their damaging effect on normal life and movement. See Checkpoints, Closed Military Zone and Curfews.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/closures

Coalition of Women for Peace

Founded in November 2000, this Israeli coalition includes both independent women and nine women's peace organizations comprising Jewish and Palestinian Arab citizens of Israel. Together they promote a two-state solution, an end to militarization and occupation, equality for citizens within Israel as well as the inclusion of women in any process for peace. See the coalition’s website at http://www.coalitionofwomen.org/?lang=en.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/coalition-women-peace

Collaborator

Frequently used to describe Palestinians who work for Israeli intelligence agencies in gathering information about other Palestinians. Israel often provides these Palestinians with financial compensation, travel privileges and/or protection. The reasons motivating Palestinian collaboration with Israel differ, but some Palestinians have become collaborators as a result of blackmail tactics by Israeli operatives. In several cases, Palestinian militant groups have killed Palestinians suspected of being collaborators. Many collaborators have moved to live inside Israel because of fear for their lives. See “The Phenomenon of Collaborators in Palestine.” 2001. PASSIA. 22 August 2011. http://www.passia.org/publications/dialogue_series/collaborators/.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/collaborator

Combatants for Peace

Founded in 2005, this nonprofit organization is made up of former combatant Palestinians and Israelis. Combatants for Peace are committed to nonviolence, dialogue and reconciliation as the sole means of ending Israel's occupation of the Palestinian Territories, halting the construction of Jewish Israeli settlements, and establishing a Palestine state, with East Jerusalem as its capital. See the organization's website at http://cfpeace.org/.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/combatants-peace

Communist Party of Israel (Maki)

(Maki is a Hebrew Acronym for "HaMiflega HaKomunistit HaYisraelit" or "Communist Party of Israel") Founded in 1948, this Israeli political party developed from the remnants of the Communist Party of pre-1948 Palestine. It has both Jewish and Palestinian Arab membership, although the latter more than the former. It was one of the first Israeli groups to establish contact abroad with individuals active in the Palestinian resistance and to actively recruit Palestinian Arab citizens of Israel as members. The Communist Party of Israel held seats in the Israeli parliament until 1974 when the party split, leading to the formation of the New Communist List (Rakah). Rakah became and is today the leading faction within the coalition of Hadash (the Democratic Front for Peace and Equality), which has held seats in the parliament since 1974. In 1989, Rakah changed its name to Maki, thus taking back the name of the original Communist Party of Israel. See the party’s website at http://maki.org.il/en/index.php.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/communist-party-israel-maki

Conservative Judaism

One of four major denominations/movements of religious Judaism: Orthodox, Conservative, Reform and Reconstructionist. A branch of Judaism that began in the United States in the early 1900s as an alternative to Orthodox and Reform Judaism. Conservative Judaism focuses on Jewish law as a guide to an authentic Jewish lifestyle but accepts some critiques of secular scholarship. See "Conservative Judaism.” Jewish Virtual Library. 18 June 2011. http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Judaism/conservatives.html.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/conservative-judaism

Council for Peace and Security

Established by a group of Israeli reserve officers in 1988, this non-partisan council brings together Israeli national security experts from various backgrounds (military, intelligence, diplomatic, political and academic) who believe that the “Middle East Peace Process” is essential for Israel’s national security. See the council’s website at http://www.peace-security-council.org.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/council-peace-and-security

Dahlan, Mohammed

(1961- ) A Palestinian political and security figure. A longtime member of Fatah, Dahlan served on the Palestinian Legislative Council and participated in the Oslo Process and later initiatives such as the 2000 Camp David (II) Summit. Frequently in charge of Palestinian security in the Gaza Strip, he was courted by both the United States and Israel to maintain control over militant groups, particularly Hamas. While heading the Palestinian National Security Council from 2006-2007, Dahlan was a key part of escalating tensions in Gaza between Fatah and Hamas (see Palestinian Civil War). In June 2007, he led what some saw as Fatah’s attempt to maintain security and order in Gaza and what others saw as a failed overthrow of the Hamas-led government. After the subsequent Hamas takeover of Gaza, Palestinian Authority President Mahmoud Abbas dissolved the National Security Council. Dahlan was elected to Fatah’s Central Committee in 2009 and then suspended from it in early 2011 pending investigation into internal coup rumors. See Berg, Raffi. “Profile: Mohammed Dahlan.” 23 April 2003. BBC. 18 July 2011. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/2068270.stm; and Rose, David. “The Gaza Bombshell.” Vanity Fair. April 2008. http://www.vanityfair.com/politics/features/2008/04/gaza200804.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/dahlan-mohammed

Damascus Gate

Known as Bab Al-Amud (Gate of the Column) in Arabic and Sha'ar Schem (Nablus Gate) in Hebrew. Located in the northern wall of Jerusalem's Old City, the Damascus Gate is one of main entranceways into the Muslim Quarter. The modern gate was built in 1542 by the Ottoman ruler Suleiman the Magnificent.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/damascus-gate

Darwish, Mahmoud

(1942-2008) A Palestinian writer and political figure. Most well-known for his poetry, Darwish is considered the Palestinian national poet. He was also active in the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) and a journalist and editor for many years. Darwish broke with the PLO in 1993 in protest of the Oslo Process, which he deemed as detrimental to Palestinian rights and statehood. See Mahmoud Darwish. 18 July 2011. http://www.mahmouddarwish.com/ui/englishhttp://www.justvision.org/glossary/darwish-mahmoud

Dead Sea

A salt lake located between Jordan, Israel and the West Bank, known for its high salt and mineral content. The lake is a popular tourist and spa destination. The Dead Sea's shores are the lowest point on the surface of the earth on dry land, and the sea itself is rapidly shrinking due to the natural diversion of incoming waters, a phenomenon that has concerned Israeli, Palestinian and Jordanian authorities.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/dead-sea

Declaration of Principles

Signed by the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) and Israel in September of 1993, the Declaration of Principles (DOP) calls for a phased peace process, including permanent settlement to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict based on United Nation Resolutions 242 and 338. The DOP is complemented by a previous exchange of letters between Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and PLO Chairman Yasser Arafat, in which Israel recognized the PLO as the representative of the Palestinian people and the PLO recognized Israel’s right to exist in peace and security. The DOP was the first formal agreement signed by official representatives of the State of Israel and the PLO. See Fischbach, Michael R. “Oslo Agreements.” Philip Mattar, ed. Encyclopedia of the Palestinians. New York: Facts on File, 2005. For the text of the DOP, see "Text: 1993 Declaration of Principles.” BBC. 29 November 2001. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/in_depth/middle_east/israel_and_the_palestinians/key_documents/1682727.stmhttp://www.justvision.org/glossary/declaration-principles

Deir Yassin

A Palestinian Arab village near Jerusalem, now destroyed and the site of a Jerusalem neighborhood. On April 9, 1948 (one month before Israel’s Declaration of Independence), it was the scene of a massacre with fateful consequences for Palestinians. The village of 600 Palestinian Arab inhabitants had signed a non-aggression pact with the Haganah (the precursor to the Israeli army) in order to avoid the violence already spreading throughout the area. Dissident Jewish paramilitary groups, notably the Irgun and Lehi/Stern Gang, attacked the village, reportedly informing the Haganah of their plans. The Irgun narrative maintains that their forces called on the village to surrender, and that they only entered Deir Yassin after Palestinian forces opened fire, inflicting casualties. By the time Irgun and Lehi fighters entered the village, most men had fled. The militias killed and raped many of those remaining. Haganah forces eventually moved in and ended the massacre. Those not killed were paraded through the streets of Jerusalem and then sent to the city’s Arab sector. The number killed was originally reported at 254, but more recent studies by both Palestinian and Israeli scholars suggest that the real figure was between 94 and 120. Reports of the massacre played a significant role in inducing Palestinians to flee their villages and towns across Palestine. The Arab attack on the Jewish medical convoy to the hospital on Mount Scopus a few days later, in which 77 Jews, mostly medical personnel, were killed, was at least partly in revenge for Deir Yassin. See McDaniel, Daniel A. and Marc H. Ellis. Remembering Deir Yassin: The Future of Israel and Palestine. New York: Olive Branch Press, 1998; Herzog, Chaim. Arab-Israeli Wars. New York: Vintage Books, 2005; and Kimmerling, Baruch and Joel S. Migdal. The Palestinian People: a History. London: Harvard University Press, 2003.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/deir-yassin

Dheisheh Refugee Camp

A Palestinian refugee camp in the southern West Bank, located immediately west of the city of Bethlehem. Est. population in 2011: 13,000.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/dheisheh-refugee-camp

Diaspora

The term Diaspora refers to communities of peoples in exile from their homeland. It is most commonly used to refer to the Jewish community in exile, particularly referring to the dispersion of Jews from biblical Israel beginning in 586 BCE with the destruction of the first Temple. It is more recently used to refer to any large community in exile, including Palestinians, Tibetans and others.

Dir Hana

A village in northern Israel, located in the Galilee region. Est. population in 2009: 9,000, predominantly Palestinian Arab citizens of Israel.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/dir-hana

District Coordination Office (DCO)

Israeli-Palestinian military coordination offices established as part of the 1994 Cairo Agreement (Oslo II) between Israel and the Palestinian Authority. DCOs were established in each district of the West Bank and Gaza Strip, with the Israeli military office on one side of each DCO compound and the Palestinian security forces on the other. The offices aim to coordinate and monitor the movement of Palestinians in and out of and within the West Bank and Gaza. Since the Cairo Agreement, the Palestinian civilian population has been required to apply at the local DCO, working in tandem with the Israeli Civil Administration, for permits to enter Israel, or to move between Areas A, B and C in the West Bank (see Areas A, B, C). The Cairo Agreement also mandated high levels of communication between the DCOs of each side. For example, a DCO is required to immediately notify the relevant DCO of the other side in such instances as: irregular activity by the Israeli army or Palestinian police, events that pose a threat to public order, an armed attack, and the hospitalization of an Israeli in the Gaza or Jericho area or the hospitalization of a Palestinian from the Gaza or Jericho area in Israel. For a text of the Cairo Agreement, see “Agreement on the Gaza Strip and the Jericho Area.” The Knesset. 18 June 2011. http://www.knesset.gov.il/process/docs/cairo_agreement_eng.htmhttp://www.justvision.org/glossary/district-coordination-office-dco

Dolphinarium Suicide Attack

Hamas claimed responsibility for this June 1, 2001 suicide bombing of a discotheque near the Dolphinarium in the Israeli city of Tel Aviv, which killed 21 people and left more than 100 injured. It was one of the most deadly Palestinian attacks during the Second Intifada. For more information, see McGreal, Chris. “3,000 dead yet peace remains elusive.” The Guardian. 29 September 2003. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2003/sep/29/israel.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/dolphinarium-suicide-attack

Dome of the Rock

A mosque located on the Haram Al-Sharif (The Noble Sanctuary) in the Old City of Jerusalem and adjacent to the Al-Aqsa Mosque and Western (or Wailing) Wall. Its significance stems from the Prophet Muhammad’s night journey and ascension into heaven from the rock over which the Dome of Rock now lies, commemorated in Surah 17 verse 1 of the Qur’an. A mosque was first built on that site by Umar Bin Al Khattab, the second caliph of Islam, in the year 638 CE, and another was built in its place in 691 CE. See “The Noble Sanctuary.” Noble Sanctuary Online Guide. 25 June 2007. http://www.noblesanctuary.com/index.html.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/dome-rock

Druze

A distinct ethno-religious group that resides primarily in Syria, Lebanon, northern Israel and Jordan. The Druze population’s religion stems from an eleventh century offshoot of Shi'a Islam, which originated in Egypt. Considered by the Druze to be a new interpretation of the three main monotheistic religions (Judaism, Christianity, Islam), the Druze religion is secret, closed to converts, and includes the notion of reincarnation. There are over one million Druze living in the Middle East, mainly in Syria and Lebanon, with additional smaller communities in northern Israel and Jordan. The Druze population in Israel in 2009 was 124,300. Inside Israel, Druze citizens serve in public office and, unlike other Arab-speaking populations living in Israel, they are required by Israeli law to serve in the army. Theoretically, the Druze have been citizens of the State of Israel since its founding, although they were under Israeli military administration until 1966. They maintain that they are discriminated against with regard to welfare services, development assistance and appointment to senior official positions. See Nisan, Mordechai. “The Druze in Israel: Questions of Identity, Citizenship, and Patriotism.” The Middle East Journal, Vol. 64, No. 4 (Autumn 2010), pp. 575-596; and “The Druze.” Jewish Virtual Library. 18 June 2011. http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Society_&_Culture/druze.html.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/druze

Dunam

A measure of land dating from and still used in much of the former Ottoman Empire, including Israel and the Occupied Palestinian Territories (OPT). The measurement varies from place to place, but in Israel and the OPT, a dunam is equivalent to roughly 1,000 square meters.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/dunam

Dung Gate Excavations

In 2006, excavations by the Israeli Antiquities Authority near the Al-Aqsa mosque sparked protests by Palestinians, as well as Muslims worldwide. Israeli officials say the digging near the mosque in the Old City of Jerusalem is necessary to rebuild and strengthen an access ramp to Dung Gate, while certain Islamic authorities charge that Israel is undermining the foundations of the Al-Aqsa mosque. See Alon, Gideon, Jonathan Lis, Yoav Stern and Jack Khoury. “Olmert: Muslim opposition won’t deter Jerusalem excavation.” Haaretz. 13 February 2007. http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/spages/824325.html; and “Work starts near Jerusalem shrine.” BBC. 6 February 2007. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/6334307.stm.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/dung-gate-excavations

E1

Derived from “East 1” and also known as Mevaseret Adumim. An area within Ma’aleh Adumim, the largest Jewish Israeli settlement in the central West Bank. Located just east of the Jerusalem municipal boundary and bordering the Palestinian towns of Anata, Abu Dis, Azariya and Zayim. E1 covers approximately 12 sq. km and includes enclaves of private, Palestinian-owned land. In 2004, non-government-sanctioned construction began in E1, which was later halted by pressure from the United States and the international community. Despite objections that building in E1 violated both international law and the terms of the 2003 Road Map to peace, Israel drew up plans in 2005 for over 3,000 residential buildings in E1 and later moved the West Bank (Judea & Samaria) Police Headquarters to the area. Although residential construction has not yet begun, the E1 building plans do not mention the Palestinian land enclaves and Israel has already built several roads within those enclaves. Supporters of E1 construction often site the natural growth needs of Ma’aleh Adumim as well as the need to create a contiguous and undivided Jerusalem area, while critics decry the construction as pushing out Palestinians and taking East Jerusalem off the negotiating table as a future Palestinian capital. For criticism of the E1 construction, see Shalev, Nir. The Hidden Agenda: The Establishment and Expansion Plans of Ma’ale Adummim and their Human Rights Ramifications. December 2009. B’Tselem and Bimkom. 30 June 2011. http://www.btselem.org/download/200912_maale_adummim_eng.pdf. For a pro-E1 construction perspective, see Stoil, Rebecca Ann. “Rivlin: No peace without E-1 building.” Jerusalem Post. 10 August 2009. http://fr.jpost.com/servlet/Satellite?cid=1249418568130&pagename=JPost/JPArticle/ShowFull.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/e1

Efrat

A Jewish Israeli settlement in the southern West Bank, located between the Palestinian cities of Bethlehem and Hebron. Est. population in 2009: 8,200.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/efrat

Eilaboun

A village in northern Israel, located in the southwest portion of the Galilee region. Est. population in 2009: 4,800, predominantly Palestinian-Arab citizens of Israel.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/eilaboun

Eilat

A city on the southern tip of Israel, located along the Red Sea coast. Est. population in 2009: 46,400, predominantly Jewish Israelis.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/eilat

Eitam, Effie

(1952- ) A Jewish Israeli political figure. Formerly a leader of the Mafdal (National Religious) party, member of the Israeli parliament and Minister of Housing and Construction from 2003-2004. Eitam left the government coalition and Mafdal in 2004 over Israel’s plan to withdraw Jewish Israeli settlements from Gaza (see Gaza Disengagement); his Ahi party later merged into the Likud party in 2009. Eitam chose not to run in the 2009 elections and instead acted as Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu’s special emissary for overseas university engagement. See “Effie Eitam.” The Knesset. 27 June 2011. http://www.knesset.gov.il/mk/eng/mk_eng.asp?mk_individual_id_t=715; and Beinart, Peter. “The Failure of the American Jewish Establishment.” The New York Review of Books. 10 June 2010. http://www.nybooks.com/articles/archives/2010/jun/10/failure-american-jewish-establishment/.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/eitam-effie

Eldad, Aryeh

(1950- ) A Jewish Israeli political figure and doctor. He has been a member of the Israeli parliament since 2003, representing a faction of the National Union party, whose party platform calls for the voluntary transfer of Palestinian Arab citizens of Israel to other Arab countries. Eldad was a strong opponent of the withdrawal of Jewish Israeli settlements from Gaza (see Gaza Disengagement) and was one of the few politicians to call for nonviolent resistance in response. As a doctor, he specializes in plastic surgery and the treatment of burn victims. See “Arieh Eldad.” The Knesset. 27 June 2011. http://www.knesset.gov.il/mk/eng/mk_eng.asp?mk_individual_id_t=752; and Hoffman, Gil. “Arye Eldad to head new secular Right party.” Jerusalem Post. 20 November 2007. http://fr.jpost.com/servlet/Satellite?cid=1195546683035&pagename=JPost/JPArticle/ShowFull.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/eldad-aryeh

Emek Hefer

A predominantly agricultural region in northern Israel, located north of the city of Netanya with the Mediterranean Sea to the west and the West Bank to the east.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/emek-hefer

Eretz Yisrael

(Hebrew for “the Land of Israel”) Refers to the biblical land of Israel. The term is also used to refer to the modern-day State of Israel, thus linking it to the religious and geographic Jewish homeland as represented in the Bible.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/eretz-yisrael

Face to Face/Faith to Faith

Established in 2001 and currently run by Auburn Theological Seminary in New York. The program focuses on religious study, leadership and peacebuilding for Christian, Muslim and Jewish teenagers from different conflict regions, including Israel and Palestine. See the program’s website at http://www.auburnseminary.org/facetoface.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/face-facefaith-faith

Fatah

(Arabic for “conquest” and a reverse acronym for “Harakat al-Tahrir al-Watani al-Filistani” or “Palestine Liberation Movement”) The largest Palestinian political party, Fatah currently governs the West Bank and is the dominant faction of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO). Yasser Arafat, among other Palestinian leaders, founded Fatah in Kuwait in 1959 as a secular Palestinian national movement. It began paramilitary and political operations in 1964, and assumed the leadership of the PLO in 1968. During the Oslo Process, it became identified as the chief proponent of a negotiated, two-state solution. In 2006, the Hamas victory in the Palestinian legislative elections resulted in the end of Fatah’s political dominance. The events that followed resulted in a division between Fatah and Hamas, with Fatah assuming political leadership of the West Bank (see Palestinian Civil War); Fatah party members still reside in the Gaza Strip. Fatah signed a unity agreement with Hamas in April 2011, the results of which are yet to be seen. See Parsons, Nigel. The Politics of the Palestinian Authority: From Oslo to al-Aqsa. New York & London: Routledge, 2005; and Abu Khalil, As’ad. “Fatah.” Philip Mattar, ed. Encyclopedia of the Palestinians. New York: Facts on File, 2005.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/fatah

Fayyad, Salam

(1952- ) A Palestinian political figure. Fayyad worked at the World Bank from 1987-1995 and then served as the International Monetary Fund’s representative to Palestine until 2001. As a member of Fatah, he served as Finance Minister for the Palestinian Authority from 2002-2005. Fayyad resigned from Fatah in 2005 to help found the Third Way party, which won two seats in the January 2006 legislative elections. Appointed Finance Minister in March 2007 as part of the unity government between Fatah and Hamas, he served in that post until the June 2007 Palestinian Civil War (see Palestinian Civil War). Fayyad was then appointed as Prime Minister of the Fatah-dominated Palestinian Authority, a post he continues to hold today. In the absence of successful political negotiations, Fayyad has focused on developing the institutions of a Palestinian state. See “Profile: Salam Fayyad.” BBC News. 17 June 2007. ; and Brown, Nathan. “Are Palestinians Building a State?” June 2010. The Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. 5 January 2012.

Fedayeen

(Arabic plural for "Those who are ready to sacrifice themselves for a cause") Refers to several distinct, primarily Arab groups at different times in history, who adopted the idea of armed resistance. Used especially to describe those guerilla units operating mainly against Israel and the Israeli occupation.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/fedayeen

First Intifada

(Arabic for “shaking off”) The term became the universal name for the Palestinian revolt (or “disturbances”), which began spontaneously on December 9, 1987 in Gaza and quickly spread to the West Bank. The first mass uprising against Israel’s occupation, which had begun 20 years before, this intifada quickly developed a unified leadership, and involved coordinated strikes, rock-throwing and some more violent actions against Israel involving weapons. The Israeli military was unable to quell the rebellion, although they implemented a harsh “break their bones” policy under Defense Minister Yitzhak Rabin, involving widespread arrests, detention and beatings. By 1991, it had spawned considerable intra-Palestinian settling of personal and ideological scores, grimly dubbed the “intrafada”. The intifada officially ended when Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization formally recognized each other in 1993 and co-launched the Oslo Process. The overall character of the First Intifada is disputed, with some claiming it was overwhelmingly nonviolent and organized and others focusing on the use of weapons by some Palestinians. There are scholars who consider the 1936-39 Palestinian uprising as the “real” first intifada. See King, Mary Elizabeth. A Quiet Revolution: The First Palestinian Intifada and Nonviolent Resistance. New York: Nation Books, 2007 and Farsoun, Samih K. and Naseer H. Aruri. Palestine and the Palestinians, 2nd ed. Boulder: Westview Press, 2006; and “The Intifada.” MERIP. 12 November 2011. http://www.merip.org/palestine-israel_primer/intifada-87-pal-isr-primer....  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/first-intifada

French Hill

(Giv’at Shapira in Hebrew) An Israeli settlement and neighborhood in the Jerusalem municipal boundaries, in an area called East Jerusalem. Est. population in 2008: 7,099, predominantly Jewish Israelis. See Jerusalem. http://www.justvision.org/glossary/french-hill

Friends of the Earth (FoE)

The world's largest grassroots environmental network, with over two million members and 76 national member groups. See the international FoE website at http://www.foei.org/. For information on their projects in the West Bank, see the FoE Middle East website at http://www.foeme.org/www/?module=homehttp://www.justvision.org/glossary/friends-earth-foe

Galilee

A region that covers most of northern Israel, extending from the city of Dan in the north to the ridges of Mount Carmel and Mount Gilboa in the south, and from the Jordan Rift Valley in the east to the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and the Coastal Plain in the west.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/galilee

Gaza Blockade

After Hamas’ takeover of Gaza in 2007, Israel, along with cooperation from Egypt and the Palestinian Authority (PA), initiated a heightened land, air and sea blockade of the Gaza Strip, at times closing all border crossings. Israel states that its blockade is for security, restricting the entry of goods that can also be employed for military use and thus lessening rocket attacks into southern Israel and eventually weakening the Hamas government. Egypt kept its border with Gaza closed until May 2011, except for a brief period in 2008 when Palestinians broke through the Egyptian-Gazan border fence. The PA has quietly supported the blockade as a way to weaken Hamas. Many Palestinians and others claim that the blockade has starved Gazans, escalated tensions and, therefore, violence toward Israel, and broken international humanitarian law. The blockade has led to a humanitarian crisis in Gaza, with the United Nations reporting that 61% of Gazans are “food insecure” and 80% of Gazan households rely on some kind of food aid. The economy, education and medical care in general have worsened. For an Israeli government perspective, see Fendel, Hillel. “Foreign Min. Legal Expert Explains Gaza Blockade.” Arutz Sheva. 27 May 2010. http://www.israelnationalnews.com/News/News.aspx/137728. For a criticism of the blockade, see Gaza Flotilla and Levy, Gideon. The Punishment of Gaza. New York: Verso, 2010.  For information on the effects of the blockade, see “Guide: Gaza under blockade.” BBC. 6 July 2010. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/7545636.stm.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/gaza-blockade

Gaza City

A city in the northern Gaza Strip, located along the Mediterranean Sea. Est. population in 2007: 449,221. Gaza City has the largest Palestinian population in all the Occupied Palestinian Territories and its population density is one of the highest in the world.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/gaza-city

Gaza Disengagement

Also known as  the Pull Out, the Withdrawal, “he Evacuation, and “HaHitnatkut” in Hebrew. It refers to Israel’s unilateral withdrawal of all 21 Jewish Israeli settlements and the Israeli army from the Gaza Strip (and from four settlements in a small section of the Northern West Bank) in August-September of 2005. The plan generated immense controversy in Israel, and was considered unforgivable treason by the settlement community, especially since its main proponent, Prime Minister Ariel Sharon, had been the most important advocate for and implementer of settlements in the West Bank and Gaza since 1967. Many settlers engaged in passive (and some active) resistance, but an immense Israeli army presence allowed it to proceed smoothly. In total, despite tremendous internal opposition, some 8000 Gaza settlers were evacuated as part of the plan. Despite Palestinian offers, Israel refused to coordinate the withdrawal officially with the Palestinian Authority, though informal coordination did take place. Israel currently maintains control over Gaza’s air space, land borders and coastline, but has no “permanent security presence” within the Gaza borders. Israel points out that Palestinians are continuing attacks despite the withdrawal, while Palestinians argue that complete Israeli control of Gaza’s border means the disengagement cannot be considered a true withdrawal. Under international law, Israel remains the occupying power. See Bickerton, Ian J and Carla L. Klausner. A History of the Arab-Israeli Conflict, 5th ed. New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2007; and Efrat, Elisha. The West Bank and Gaza Strip: A geography of occupation and disengagement. London & New York: Routledge, 2006. For a text of the April 2004 declaration outlining the plan, see “Disengagement Plan of Prime Minister Ariel Sharon.” 16 April 2004. The Knesset. 12 November 2011. http://www.knesset.gov.il/process/docs/DisengageSharon_eng.htm.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/gaza-disengagement

Gaza Flotilla

Organized by an international coalition called the Free Gaza Movement, the Gaza flotillas are groups of boats that sail to the Gaza Strip with the goal of breaking the Israeli-Egyptian siege, bringing in humanitarian aid and construction materials, and raising awareness about the illegality (based on international law) and humanitarian effects of the siege. Since August 2008, nine flotillas have set out for Gaza, often carrying politicians, journalists, actors and musicians. On May 31, 2010, Israeli naval commandos boarded four flotilla boats and ensuing clashes on one boat led to the deaths of nine flotilla activists, in addition to the arrests of hundreds of activists. Israel stated that it had a right to stop the flotilla from entering Israeli-controlled waters and that the commandos responded violently only after being attacked by the activists. The Free Gaza Movement chided Israel for boarding the boats in international waters and subsequent investigations by the United Nations and the Turkish government questioned Israel’s proportionate use of force against the activists. Despite the events of 2010, the Free Gaza Movement continues to organize and send flotillas. For more background on the siege and responses to it, see Gaza Tunnels and Gaza War/Operation Cast Lead. See the Free Gaza Movement’s website at http://www.freegaza.org/. For a perspective from the Israeli government regarding its raid of the May 2010 flotilla, see Ravid, Barak. “Israel adds Turkish organizers of Gaza flotilla to terror watch list.” Haaretz. 16 June 2010. http://www.haaretz.com/news/diplomacy-defense/israel-adds-turkish-organi.... For a United Nations report on the May 2010 flotilla events, see “Report of the international fact-finding mission to investigate violations of international law, including international humanitarian and human rights law, resulting rom the Israeli attacks on the flotilla of ships carrying humanitarian assistance.” 27 September 2010. United Nations Human Rights Council. 24 June 2011. http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/hrcouncil/docs/15session/A.HRC.15.2....  http://www.justivision.org/glossary/gaza-flotilla

Gaza Strip

A Palestinian territory located on the Mediterranean Coast and bordering the northern Egyptian Sinai Peninsula to the south and southern Israel to the north and east. Est. population in 2007 according to the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics: 1,415,543. The territory was under Egyptian military rule from 1948-1967, followed by Israeli administrative and military occupation from 1967-1994, after which the newly formed Palestinian Authority (PA) was granted limited self-government for an interim five-year period. Israel retained responsibility for external and internal security as well as for administration of Jewish Israeli settlements; these settlements were evacuated by the Israeli government in 2005 (see Gaza Disengagement). Israel still maintains control over Gaza’s air space, and land and sea borders, and continues to launch military operations within Gaza (see Gaza Blockade and Gaza War/Operation Cast Lead). In 2007, Hamas seized control of Gaza and currently governs the territory apart from the PA. See “Gaza Strip.” Central Intelligence Agency. 14 June 2011. The World Factbook. 15 July 2011. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/gz.html.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/gaza-strip

Gaza Tunnels

Palestinians have dug tunnels under the border between Egypt and Gaza through which an array of goods, some of which are not allowed through Gaza’s border crossings in large quantities or at all, are brought in and out. Though the tunnels have been in existence since the 1990s, tunnel activity significantly increased and became more pubic after Israel’s blockade of Gaza following the Hamas takeover of Gaza in 2007. Citing to the prevalence of drug and weapons trading through the tunnels, both Israel and Egypt have destroyed and shut down many of the tunnels. For a perspective on the tunnels being a danger to Israel, see “Report: Tunnels increase, Israel concerned.” 21 March 2011. United Press International. 8 June 2011. http://www.upi.com/Top_News/World-News/2011/03/21/Report-Tunnels-increas.... For a view of the tunnels being a necessity for Palestinians, see Bartlett, Eva. “No other options:” Gaza’s tunnel industry. The Electronic Intifada. 1 June 2010. http://electronicintifada.net/content/no-other-options-gazas-tunnel-indu.... For a recent assessment of Gaza’s needs and the use of the tunnels, see “One Year After Report: Gaza Early Recovery and Reconstruction Needs Assessment.” 24 May 2010. United Nations Development Program. 22 May 2011. http://unispal.un.org/UNISPAL.NSF/0/276B3267FDF0A0948525772D0051B669.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/gaza-tunnels

Gaza War/Operation Cast Lead

Israel launched a military offensive in Gaza on December 27, 2008, which lasted for three weeks. Israel stated this offensive was in response to rocket attacks on Israeli towns from Gaza, while Palestinians point to Israel’s blockade of Gaza as escalating the situation. Reports differ on the number of fatalities during the offensive, with Palestinian fatality numbers ranging from 1,166 to over 1,400 and Israeli fatalities at an undisputed 13. Following the offensive, the United Nations put together a Fact Finding Mission on the Gaza Conflict to investigate violations of international law, including the targeting of civilian populations, in the lead up to and during the offensive. The resulting Goldstone Report accused both Israel and Hamas and Palestinian militant groups of war crimes and recommended both sides conduct investigations on the allegations. See also Rocket Attacks. For the Israeli government’s fatality numbers and rationale, see “Operation Cast Lead: Humanitarian Aspects.” 2009. Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 10 June 2011. http://www.mfa.gov.il/NR/rdonlyres/417B32D5-C79C-439B-A5DA-60378F84CA76/.... For criticism of Israel’s blockade and the effects of the offensive, see “Locked In: The Humanitarian Impact of Two Year of Blockade on the Gaza Strip.” August 2009. United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. 10 June 2011. http://www.ochaopt.org/documents/Ocha_opt_Gaza_impact_of_two_years_of_bl.... See excerpts of the Goldstone Report at “Key Excerpts: UN Gaza Report,” BBC News. 15 September 2009. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/8257446.stm. See the full report at http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/hrcouncil/specialsession/9/docs/UNFFMGC_Report.PDF.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/gaza-waroperation-cast-lead

Geneva Initiative

Also referred to as the Geneva Accord. A nongovernmental initiative launched in Geneva, Switzerland on December 1, 2002 by Yossi Beilin from the Israeli side and Yasser Abed Rabo from the Palestinian side. The initiative outlined proposed steps and cooperation toward a final status agreement in fields ranging from economics to natural resources, as well as the resolution of issues such as settlements, the status of Jerusalem and Right of Return for Palestinian refugees. The initiative never gained official recognition, although proponents continue to press for its adoption and implementation. For a full text of the terms outlined in the Geneva Initiative, see the Geneva Initiative website at www.geneva-accord.org.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/geneva-initiative

Gilo/Beit Jala Hostilities

Beit Jala, a Palestinian city on the western outskirts of the city of Bethlehem in the southern West Bank, sits adjacent to Gilo, a Jewish Israeli settlement in the southern part of the Jerusalem municipality. Gilo was established after the War of 1967 on land that would later be included in Israel’s annexation of East Jerusalem, although the annexation has not been recognized internationally. During the Second Intifada, Gilo was struck by small arms fire from militant groups operating out of Beit Jala. Israel responded with helicopter gun ships and tank fire, and a short-lived incursion into Beit Jala. Attacks on Gilo declined rapidly after 2002. See Goldenberg, Suzanne. “Defiant Palestinians rain fire on settlement.” The Guardian. 30 August 2001. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2001/aug/30/israelhttp://www.justvision.org/glossary/gilobeit-jala-hostilities

Givat Haviva

Founded in 1949, this Israeli institute’s primary goal is to foster dialogue towards peace, democracy and coexistence among all citizens of Israel. Over 25,000 Jewish and Palestinian Arab citizens of Israel take part annually in Givat Haviva's seminars. See the institute’s website at http://www.givathaviva.org/Page/3.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/givat-haviva

Givat Ze’ev

A Jewish Israeli settlement in the central West Bank, located northwest of Jerusalem. Est. population in 2009: 11,200.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/givat-ze’ev

Golan Heights

A region that borders southwestern Syria, southern Lebanon, northeastern Israel and northwestern Jordan. Israel captured the Golan Heights from Syria during the War of 1967 and formally annexed the region in December 1981, although the annexation has not been recognized internationally. The area is an important source of water, and has strategic military implications as well. The 20,000-strong Syrian Druze community, many of whom lived in the area prior to 1967, now live under Israeli rule. There are more than 30 Jewish Israeli settlements in the Golan Heights, inhabited by approximately 20,000 settlers. The return of the Golan Heights to Syria by Israel has proven to be a major stumbling block for a Syrian-Israeli peace treaty. See Bickerton, Ian J and Carla L. Klausner. A History of the Arab-Israeli Conflict, 5th ed. New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2007; and “Regions and territories: The Golan Heights.” 10 August 2010. BBC. 21 July 2011. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/country_profiles/3393813.stm. For information about the Syrian Druze community, see Kershner, Isabel. “In the Golan Heights, Anxious Eyes Look East.” New York Times. 21 May 2011. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/05/22/world/middleeast/22golan.html.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/golan-heights

Goldstein, Baruch/Hebron Massacre

A Jewish Israeli of American origin. Goldstein was a follower of the late Jewish Israeli political figure Meir Kahane, whose Kach party was outlawed by the Israeli government. On February 25, 1994, he opened fire on Palestinian Muslims during Friday prayers in the Ibrahimi Mosque/Tomb of the Patriarchs. Located in the Old City of Hebron in the southern West Bank, this site is holy for both Muslims and Jews. Goldstein killed 29 people before being subdued and killed by the worshipers themselves. See “1994: Jewish settler kills 30 at holy site.” BBC. 1 July 2011. http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/february/25/newsid_4167000/4167929.stm.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/goldstein-baruchhebron-massacre

Goldstone Report

Released on September 29, 2009, this report details the findings of the United Nations Fact Finding Mission on the Gaza Conflict. Commissioned by the United Nations Human Rights Council, the Mission was headed by South African Justice Richard Goldstone and also included three other members from different parts of the world. In investigating the Israeli military incursion into Gaza from December 27, 2008 to January 18, 2009 as well as the events leading up to it, the report found Israel and Hamas/other Palestinian militant groups guilty of violating international human rights and humanitarian law, including actions that amounted to war crimes. On the Israeli side, the report focused on Israel’s blockade of Gaza prior to the war in addition to the its military’s actions during the war that were “directed at the people of Gaza as a whole.” In regards to Hamas and other Palestinian militant groups, the report emphasized the thousands of rockets and mortars launched into civilian areas of southern Israel before the war. The report concluded with a request that both sides conduct their own investigations into the allegations; Israel eventually conducted an investigation while Hamas did not. Reactions to the report were explosive, with the Israeli government declaring the report to be factually incorrect and politically biased and others desiring to try Israel at the International Criminal Court. On April 10, 2011, Justice Goldstone wrote an Op-Ed in the Washington Post reconsidering some of the report’s findings regarding Israel and war crimes, which some Israeli officials deemed a delayed apology while others found his Op-Ed vague and unclear. See the Goldstone Report and other related documents at “United Nations Fact Finding Mission on the Gaza Conflict.” UN Human Rights Council. 21 December 2011. http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/hrcouncil/specialsession/9/factfind.... For the Israeli government’s response to and investigation into the allegations of the Goldstone Report, see “Initial Response to Report of the Fact Finding Mission on Gaza.” 24 September 2009. Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 21 December 2011. http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/Terrorism-+Obstacle+to+Peace/Hamas+war+against... http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/Terrorism-+Obstacle+to+Peace/Hamas+war+against.... For varying views of the Report and the response to it, see Horowitz, Adam, Lizzy Ratner and Philip Weiss, Eds. The Goldstone Report: The Legacy of the Landmark Investigation of the Gaza Conflict. New York: Nations Books, 2011. For Goldstone’s Op-Ed in the Washington, Post, see Goldstone, Richard. “Reconsidering the Goldstone report on Israel and war crimes.” Washington Post. 1 April 2011. http://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/reconsidering-the-goldstone-repor.... For former Prime Minister Ehud Olmert’s reaction to Goldstone’s Op-Ed, see “Olmert: There can be no forgiveness for Goldstone.” The Jeruslame Post. 15 April 2011. http://WWW.jpost.com/DiplomacyAndPolitics/Article.aspx?id=216722. For an analysis on why Goldstone chose to write the Op-Ed, see Erakat, Noura. “Roundup on the Goldstone Controversy.” Jadaliyya. 13 April 2011. http://www.jadaliyya.com/pages/index/1245/roundup-on-the-goldstone-contr....

Golomb, Eliyahu

(1893-1945) A prominent Jewish Zionist figure. Born in present-day Belarus, Golomb moved to Palestine in 1909. After forming a Jewish militia during World War I, he became one of the founding members of the Jewish paramilitary group Haganah. Golomb worked within the Revisionist Zionist movement, trying to unify Jewish defense/paramilitary actions. Traveling extensively for the Haganah and acquiring weapons for the group, Golomb also organized and funded much of the illegal Jewish immigration to Palestine in the 1930s. See “Golomb, Eliyahu (1893-1945).” Jewish Agency for Israel. 14 June 2011. http://www.jafi.org.il/JewishAgency/English/Jewish+Education/Compelling+Content/Eye+on+Israel/Gallery+of+People+(Biographies)/Golomb+Eliyahu.htm.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/golomb-eliyahu

Green Line

Refers to the 1949 Armistice Line following the War of 1948, a line that demarcated unofficial boundaries between Jordan, Israel, Lebanon, Syria and Egypt. Since the War of 1967, the Green Line has denoted, according to most international opinion and United Nations resolutions, the boundary between territory recognized as part of the legitimate, sovereign State of Israel and the Occupied Palestinian Territories. For a map that marks the Green Line, see B’Tselem’s June 2011 map at http://www.btselem.org/download/20110612_btselem_map_of_wb_eng.pdf. For different Israeli and Palestinian perspectives on the use of the Green Line in modern-day political dealings, see “The green line.” 24 February 2003. Bitterlemons.org. 11 July 2011. http://www.bitterlemons.org/previous/bl240203ed8.html.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/green-line

Gush Etzion

Also know as the "Etzion bloc." Gush Etzion refers to an area of Jewish Israeli settlements in the southern West Bank, located on the western and southern sides of the Palestinian city of Bethlehem. As of 2009, the area included over 20 settlements and over 555,000 settlers. See also Gush Etzion Capture in 1948.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/gush-etzion

Gush Etzion Capture in 1948

After several failed attempts during the 1920s and 1930s to establish a permanent Jewish foothold in an area south of Jerusalem on part of present-day Gush Etzion (a Jewish Israeli settlement bloc in the southern West Bank), Jews attempted to settle the land again between 1943 and 1947. They established four Jewish communities: Kfar Etzion, Masuot Yitzhak, Ein Tzurim and Revadim. During the War of 1948, the Haganah (a Jewish paramilitary group and the precursor to the Israeli army) sent a convoy to reinforce the Jewish settlements. The convoy came under heavy attack and all 35 men died in the battle. In the course of the War of 1948, all four settlements were destroyed and the entire area came under Jordanian rule. The loss of these four Jewish communities and their failed rescue remains in Israeli collective memory, especially among settler communities, and contributes to a nationalist and religious connection to the modern-day settlement bloc of Gush Etzion. Kfar Etzion was the first settlement to be established (or re-established) after the War of 1967. See “Settlements in Focus: Vol. 1, Issue 14 - Gush Etzion.” 11 Nov. 2005. Americans for Peace Now. 18 July 2011. http://peacenow.org/entries/archive1709; and  “The Etzion Bloc.” Jewish Virtual Library. 18 July 2011. http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Society_&_Culture/geo/Etzion.htmlhttp://www.justvision.org/glossary/gush-etzion-capture-1948

Gush Katif

A bloc of 17 Jewish Israeli settlements that was located in the southern Gaza Strip. In August 2005, the Israeli government removed all 8,000 residents from their homes and re-settled them in Israel and parts of the West Bank. See Gaza Disengagement.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/gush-katif

Gush Shalom

(Hebrew for “Peace Bloc”) Founded in 1993, Gush Shalom is an Israeli peace movement that formed out of protests against the Israeli government’s expulsion of 415 Islamic/Palestinian activists in late 1992. An action and education-oriented movement, its stated central goal is to guide Israeli public opinion towards peace and conciliation with the Palestinian people. See movement’s website at http://zope.gush-shalom.org/index_en.html.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/gush-shalom

Haaretz

An independent Israeli daily newspaper with a circulation of 75,000-95,000. See http://www.haaretz.com.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/haaretz

Habash, George

(1926-2008) A Palestinian political and military figure. After his family became refugees during the War of 1948, Habash never returned to the Occupied Palestinian Territories. In 1951, he helped found the Arab Nationalists’ Movement in Jordan in order to recruit Arab support against the State of Israel and to liberate Palestine. Soon after Israel’s victory during the War of 1967, Habash formed the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP), a diaspora Palestinian movement informed by Marxist ideas; the PFLP became well known for their use of plane hijackings. Habash was often in opposition to Yasser Arafat, the Chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization and the leader of Fatah, and continued that opposition once Arafat began negotiations with Israel through the Oslo Process in the 1990s. Though granted permission by Israel to return the Occupied Palestinian Territories in 1996, he refused. In 2000, Habash resigned his leadership of the PFLP. See Thorold, Crispin. “Obituary: George Habash.” BBC. 27 January 2008. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/7211505.stm.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/habash-george

Hadash

(a Hebrew acronym for "Democratic Front for Peace and Equality") An Israeli political party that defines itself as a non-Zionist, Jewish-Arab Party. Formed in 1977 to create cooperation between members of the Israeli Communist Party and non-members. Hadash supports a full Israeli withdrawal from the territories it occupied after the War of 1967 as well as full equality for Israel’s Palestinian Arab citizens. See “Hadash.” The Knesset. 9 September 2011. http://www.knesset.gov.il/faction/eng/FactionPage_eng.asp?PG=12; and “Hadash.” Ynet News. 4 February 2008. http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-3500933,00.html.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/hadash

Hadera

A city in northern Israel, located 60 km north of the city of Tel Aviv. Est. population in 2009: 78,600, predominantly Jewish Israelis.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/hadera

Haganah

(Hebrew for “defense”) A Jewish paramilitary group formed in 1920 with the expressed goal of defending the growing Jewish population in British mandate Palestine against attacks by Arab residents. The group later became part of the Jewish resistance against the British presence. In addition to its paramilitary activities, the Haganah actively established new Jewish settlements in and supported illegal Jewish immigration to Palestine. Upon the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948, the Haganah formed the core of the new Israeli army. See Morris, Benny. Righteous Victims: A History of the Zionist-Arab Conflict, 1881-2001. New York: Vintage Books, 2001; and Segev, Tom. One Palestine, Complete: Jews and Arabs Under the British Mandate. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 2000. See the official Haganah website http://www.hagana.co.il/show_item.asp?itemId=54&levelId=60321&itemType=0http://www.justvision.org/glossary/haganah

Haifa

A city in northern Israel, located along the Mediterranean Sea. Est. population in 2009: 265,300, including both Palestinian Arab and Jewish citizens of Israel. Haifa is Israel's third largest city and the country’s largest port.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/haifa

Halutz, Dan

(1948- ) A Jewish Israeli military figure. Former head of the Israeli Air Force from 2000-2004 and a pilot since 1966, Halutz currently holds the rank of Israeli Air Force Lt. General. Appointed Chief of General Staff of the Israeli army in June 2005, he resigned from that post and active duty in February 2007. He is famous for commenting that he was not bothered by the Israeli Air Force targeted strike of Hamas leader Salah Mustafa Shehade on July 22, 2002, which resulted in the deaths of 14 Palestinian civilians. See “Lt.-Gen.(res.) Dan Halutz.” Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 18 August 2011. http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/Government/Personalities/From+A-Z/Dan+Halutz.htm; and Hasson, Nir. “Dan Halutz: 40 years of service.” Haaretz. 18 January 2007. http://www.haaretz.com/print-edition/news/dan-halutz-40-years-of-service-1.210481.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/halutz-dan

Hamas

(Arabic for “zeal” and an acronym for “Harakat al-Muqawamah al-Islamiyya” or “Islamic Resistance Movement”) A Palestinian political party and Islamist national movement currently in control of Gaza; it also has party members in the West Bank. Ideologically and organizationally modeled after the Muslim Brotherhood of Egypt in 1987, Hamas is comprised of a militant wing responsible for armed operations, a political bureau and a social services branch. In 2006, Hamas’s victory in the Palestinian legislative elections resulted in the end of Fatah’s long-standing political dominance, but their victory was not widely embraced by members of the international community and Fatah. The events that followed resulted in the division between Fatah and Hamas (see Palestinian Civil War). Members of the international community, including Israel, the United States and the European Union, designated Hamas as a terrorist organization for using tactics such as suicide bombings, and do not recognize it as a legitimate government. Hamas signed a unity agreement with Fatah in April 2011, the results of which are yet to be seen. See Chehab, Zaki. Inside Hamas: The Untold Story of the Militant Islamic Movement. New York: Avalon, 2007; Hroub, Khaled. Hamas: A Beginner’s Guide. London: Pluto Press, 2006; and “Backgrounder: Hamas.” 27 August 2009. Council on Foreign Relations. 30 June 2011. http://www.cfr.org/publication/8968/#6. http://www.justvision.org/glossary/hamas

Hands of Peace

Founded in 2002 by three women of different faith backgrounds: one Christian, one Jewish and one Muslim. This interfaith organization based in the United States brings together Palestinian Arab and Jewish Israelis, West Bank Palestinians and Americans to promote common understanding. See the organization’s website at http://www.hands-of-peace.org/.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/hands-peace

HaShomer HaTzair

(Hebrew for “the young guard”) A Jewish youth movement founded in 1913 and based on the principles of Zionism and socialism. Today, the movement operates in nineteen different countries and focuses on youth-led experiential Jewish education as a way for Jews to explore their Jewish identity and “to introduce youth to progressive values of equality, peace and social justice.” See the movement’s United States-based website at http://www.campshomria.com.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/hashomer-hatzair

Hawara

A Palestinian town in the northern West Bank, located south of the city of Nablus; there is an Israeli military checkpoint in this town. Est. population in 2007: 5,570.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/hawara

Hebron

(al-Khalil in Arabic and Hevron in Hebrew) A Palestinian city in the southern West Bank, located 30 km south of Jerusalem. Est. population in 2007: 163,146. In the Old City of Hebron, there are over 500 Jewish settlers and a comparable Israeli military presence. Tension between the settler and local Palestinian population is high, with the Israeli army and settler population often severely limiting the movement and security of Palestinian residents. The Temporary International Presence in the City of Hebron (TIPH) has been present in the city since 1997, after requests by both Israeli and Palestinian authorities to observe and report breaches of human rights law and regional agreements. The city is home to the Tomb of the Patriarchs, known in Islam as the Ibrahimi Mosque, the supposed burial site of the biblical patriarchs and matriarchs, a site sacred to both Muslims and Jews. See TIPH's website at http://www.tiph.org.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/hebron

Herzl, Theordor

(1860-1904) A Hungarian-born Jew and the founding father of Zionism. Herzl outlined his ideas in the famous pamphlet “The Jewish State,” stating that the only solution to the Jewish problem and anti-semitism in Europe would be the establishment of a Jewish State. He organized the First Zionist Congress in 1897 in Basel, Switzerland and served as its president until his death. See ”Theodor Herzl.” Encyclopedia.com. 18 August 2011. http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/Theodor_Herzl.aspx.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/herzl-theordor

Herzliya

A city in central Israel, just north of the city of Tel Aviv. Est. population in 2009: 84,900, predominantly Jewish Israelis. Herzliya was named for Zionist leader Theodor Herzl.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/herzliya

Hezbollah

(Arabic for “Party of God”) A Lebanese Shi’a Muslim political group with a military wing. Founded by Shi’a clerics in 1982 as a guerilla organization with the goal of driving out Israel’s invasion and occupation forces from South Lebanon (see War od 1982). Hezbollah participated in Lebanese elections for the first time in 1992 and has since gained significant support as a political party. In May 2000, Hezbollah’s military wing declared partial victory as Israeli troops withdrew unilaterally from Lebanon after two decades of occupation. Between 2000 and 2006, Hezbollah was the de-facto ruler in South Lebanon, as well as in parts of western Beirut. Though United Nations Resolution 1559 called for the disbanding and disarming of all Lebanese and non-Lebanese militias in 2004, Hezbollah remains militarized. It is a proponent of the Palestinian cause, and continues to demand Israeli withdrawal from the Sheba’a Farms, a small stretch of disputed land between Israel, Lebanon and Syria. In July 2006, Hezbollah and Israel engaged in hostilities after the former kidnapped two and killed three Israeli soldiers. The war lasted 34 days and saw massive destruction in Lebanon, destruction in northern Israel and casualties on both sides (See Lebanon War (2006)). See Saad-Ghorayeb, Amal. Hizbullah: Politics and Religion. London: Pluto Press 2002; Gresh, Alain and Dominique Vidal. The New A-Z of the Middle East. New York: IB Tauris, 2004; and “Backgrounder: Hezbollah.” 15 July 2010. Council on Foreign Relations. 31 Octoboer 20111. http://www.cfr.org/publication/9155/.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/hezbollah

Histadrut

A trade union founded in 1920 to organize the economic activities of Jewish workers in Palestine. Established as a non-partisan, non-political organization, the Histadrut claimed to served 75% of the Jewish labor force in Palestine by 1927 and exists today in Israel as both a provider and defender of full employment. See “The Histadrut.” Jewish Virtual Library. 2011. 17 June 2011 http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/History/histadrut.html.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/histadrut

Holocaust

(a Greek word meaning "sacrifice by fire") The Nazi-led persecution and murder of millions of Europeans, including six million Jews, which were around one-third of the worldwide Jewish population. Rising to power in Germany in 1933, the Nazis believed that Germans were "racially superior" and that groups such as the Jews, the Roma, the physically disabled and homosexuals were "inferior" and thus did not deserve to live. The Nazis constructed the "Final Solution to the Jewish Question," which included the annihilation of the Jews. During the time of the Holocaust, the Nazis also persecuted Communists, Socialists, Jehovah's Witnesses and others. The Holocaust officially ended with the completion of World War II in 1945. See the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum website at http://www.ushmm.org/.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/holocaust

Holy Land Trust

A Palestinian nonprofit organization committed to the principles of nonviolence as a way to empower the Palestinian community in developing approaches to resist all forms of oppression. The organization engages in a variety of nonviolent strategies against Israel’s occupation of the West Bank and Gaza Strip, hosts travel and encounter programs for internationals, and conducts media and news programs as part of its advocacy work. See the organization’s website at http://www.holylandtrust.org/.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/holy-land-trust

Hope Flowers School

Hope Flowers School is a Palestinian school in El Khader, in the south Bethlehem area of the West Bank, dedicated to education for coexistence, peace, non-violence and democracy. See http://www.hope-flowers.org/

House Demolition

According to the Israeli Committee Against House Demolitions,182,000 Palestinian homes have been demolished in the Occupied Palestinian Territories, including East Jerusalem, since 1967 (see http://www.icahd.org). Nearly half of those demolitions have taken place since the beginning of the Second Intifada in 2000. Under international law (Article 53 of the Fourth Geneva Convention), the Israeli army’s practice of demolishing Palestinian homes is illegal. The Israeli army and government cite security and the lack of building permits as their justification for demolishing homes. On the security front, the Israeli army claims that it has demolished Palestinian houses (also factories and shops) either to prevent their use by Palestinians in attacks against Israelis, or as a punitive measure against families from which a member is suspected of planning or carrying out attacks against Israelis. Most of the Palestinian homes destroyed in East Jerusalem, certain parts of the West Bank and in Palestinian cities and towns within Israel are destroyed because they lack a building permit from the Israeli authorities. Building permits are extremely difficult and at times impossible for Palestinians to obtain. The Israeli army has also demolished structures constructed by Jewish Israeli settlers who did not obtain building permits, though these instances are few and far between. For information on Israel’s building permit and demolition practices toward Palestinians, as well as its favored treatment of Jewish Israelis, see “Separate and Unequal.” 19 December 2010. Human Rights Watch. 6 July 2011. http://www.hrw.org/en/reports/2010/12/19/separate-and-unequal. For an Israeli government rationale for the demolition of Palestinian structures, see “The Demolition of Palestinian Structures Used for Terrorism - Legal Background.” 13 July 2005. Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 16 July 2011. http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/Terrorism-+Obstacle+to+Peace/Terror+Groups/Demolition+of+Palestinian+Structures+Used+for+Terrorism+-+Legal+Background+-+May+2004.htm.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/house-demolitions

Hoz, Dov

(1894-1940) A Jewish Zionist of Russian origin who immigrated to Palestine in 1906. Hoz helped found the Jewish Legion of the British army during World War I. A leader of the Labor Zionist movement, he later became a major player in the first 20 years of the Jewish paramilitary group Haganah (the precursor to the Israeli army). He also served as head of the state department of the Histadrut, a labor union for Jews in Palestine. A pioneer of aviation in Israel, the Sde Dov Airport in Tel-Aviv is named after him. See Lockman, Zachary. Comrades and Enemies: Arab and Jewish Workers in Palestine, 1906-1948. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996 http://ark.cdlib.org/ark:/13030/ft6b69p0hf/.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/hoz-dov

Human Rights Defenders Fund

An Israeli nonprofit organization founded in 2011. The Fund supplies legal aid to “non-violent activists working for democracy, liberty and equality, in Israel and the territory it occupies.” See the Fund’s website at http://hrd.org.il/.

IDF

An acronym for Israel Defense Forces, the State of Israel's military. See also Israeli Military Service. See the IDF’s website at http://www.idf.il/english/.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/idf

International Court of Justice

The International Court of Justice (ICJ), which is the main judicial arm of the United Nations and is located in The Hague, Netherlands. In 2004, the ICJ ruled that Israel’s Separation Barrier was illegal according to international law. See the International Court of Justice’s website at http://www.icj-cij.org/.

 

International Law and “Occupied”/ “Disputed” Territory Debate

The question of Israel's responsibility in the territories gained in the War of 1967 invokes disagreement with whether the territories are in fact "occupied" or merely "disputed." Israel's rule of East Jerusalem, the West Bank and Gaza is most often defined by the body of international law developed after World War II as a "belligerent occupation." According to the Foundation for Middle East Peace, "[Israel’s] responsibilities toward the Palestinian population under its occupation are codified in both The Hague Convention Regulations (1906) and the Fourth Geneva Convention Relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Times of War (1949)." Within this framework, Israel is obliged to maintain the security of the territories, ensure public order and safety, and act for the welfare of the local population. See "Israel Required by International Law to Protect Palestinians Under Occupation." Foundation for Middle East Peace. Vol. 4, No. 3 (May 1994), http://www.fmep.org/reports/vol04/no3/02-israel_required_by_internationa.... See also the text of the IVth Geneva Convention Relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War at http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/lawofwar/geneva07.htm Others, however, argue that there was no previously-recognized sovereignty in the territories, and as such, Israel's claim to it cannot be considered an "occupation." This body of legal thought also asserts that the War of 1967 was a defensive one, and that "occupation" was forced on Israel, rather than an organic decision. A core legal defense of this case is summarized by former United States State Department Legal Advisor Stephen Schwebel, who later headed the International Court of Justice in The Hague. In 1970, regarding Israel's case, he stated, "Where the prior holder of territory had seized that territory unlawfully, the state which subsequently takes that territory in the lawful exercise of self-defense has, against that prior holder, better title." See Gold, Dore. "From 'Occupied Territories' to 'Disputed Territories.'" Jerusalem Center For Public Affairs. No. 470 (January 2002), http://www.jcpa.org/jl/vp470.htm. The case of East Jerusalem is equally disputed, although its situation is unique. Israel "unified" East and West Jerusalem in its 1980 "Jerusalem Law," which declared unified Jerusalem to be the capital of Israel, leaving borders undefined. Due to the ambiguity of the law, it is still unclear whether Israel has officially annexed the territory, although the Israeli government has invested significant resources into building Israeli infrastructure in East Jerusalem. Most countries do not recognize Israeli sovereignty over the entire city, an opinion codified in United Nations Security Council Resolution 478. To read the text of the 1980 Basic Law, see “Basic Law-Jerusalem-Capital of Israel.” Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 31 October 2011. http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/MFAArchive/1980_1989/Basic+Law-+Jerusalem-+Capital+of+Israel.htm.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/international-law-and-“occupied”-“disputed”-territory-debate

International Solidarity Movement (ISM)

Founded in 2001 by mostly Palestinian and Israeli activists, ISM exists to support Palestinian-led nonviolent resistance against Israel’s occupation through the presence of international solidarity activists as well as through bringing international media attention. See the movement’s website at http://palsolidarity.org/.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/international-solidarity-movement-ism

Ir Amim

(Hebrew for "City of nations" or "City of peoples") An Israeli nonprofit organization founded in 2000 with the vision of making Jerusalem a more viable and equitable city for all its residents, both Jewish Israelis and Palestinians. The organization monitors and reports anything it believes could hinder political negotiations on Jerusalem, including the building of Jewish Israeli settlements and Palestinian land expropriation by Israel in the greater Jerusalem area. Ir Amim also conducts study tours and works to build up Palestinian socio-economic institutions in East Jerusalem. See the organization’s website at http://www.ir-amim.org.il/Eng/.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/ir-amin

Irgun

(Hebrew for “organization”) Also known as Etzel, which is the Hebrew acronym for “Irgun Tzvai-Leum” or "National Military Organization.” The Irgun was an underground Jewish paramilitary group active during the British mandate of Palestine. Considered a terrorist entity by the British administration and a radical rival by the dominant Labor Zionist movement, the Irgun undertook armed operations against both Palestinian Arab communities and the British. In 1946, Irgun members bombed the King David Hotel, which served as a British command post. On April 9, 1948, members of the Irgun were identified as participating in the attack on the Palestinian Arab village of Deir Yassin. The Irgun was completely dismantled and subsumed into the Israeli army by September of 1948. One of the Irgun’s main commanders was Menachem Begin, Prime Minister of Israel from 1977-1983. See Segev, Tom. One Palestine, Complete: Jews and Arabs Under the British Mandate. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 2000; and Morris, Benny. Righteous Victims: A History of the Zionist-Arab Conflict, 1881-2001. New York: Vintage Books, 2001.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/irgun

Islamic Jihad

Also known as the Palestinian Islamic Jihad. A Palestinian Islamist militant group founded in 1979-80 by Palestinian students in Egypt who had split from the Palestinian Muslim Brotherhood in the Gaza Strip. The founders were ideologically influenced and inspired by the Islamic revolution in Iran as well as the radicalization of Egyptian Islamic student organizations. Deemed a terrorist organization by the United States, the European Union, Israel and other countries, Islamic Jihad has perpetrated numerous armed and suicide attacks, primarily in Israel. The group is open to running in local Palestinian elections, but rejects participation in both legislative and presidential elections as it does not believe in the Palestinian Authority. See Fischbach, Michael R. “Islamic Jihad.” Philip Mattar, ed. Encyclopedia of the Palestinians. New York: Facts on File, 2005; and Fletcher, Holly. “Palestinian Islamic Jihad.” 10 April 2008. Council on Foreign Relations. 1 November 2011. http://www.cfr.org/israel/palestinian-islamic-jihad/p15984.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/islamic-jihad

Israel Land Administration

A 1960 Basic Law established the Israel Land Administration (ILA) to oversee the distribution and protection of all public lands in Israel. Currently, 93% of Israeli land is publicly owned. This land is jointly managed by the state, the Jewish National Fund and the Development Authority, collectively functioning as the ILA. Land in Israel is most often leased from the state for 49 or 98 years. The remaining 7% of land is either privately owned or under the protection of religious authorities. See the ILA website at http://www.mmi.gov.il/Envelope/indexeng.asp.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/israel-land-administration

Israeli

A term used to refer to citizens of Israel who attained Israeli citizenship by birth or by naturalization. Demographically, Israel’s population is predominantly Jewish, but also includes a sizable Palestinian Arab population (officially named Israeli-Arabs by the Israeli government; see Palestinian Arab Citizens of Israel). In 2009, Israel’s demographic breakdown per the Israeli Central Bureau of Statistics was: 5,703,700 Jews; 1,535,600 Arabs; and 312,700 others. Included in the “Jews” category are Jewish Israelis living in Jewish settlements in the West Bank. Per Israel’s Law of Return, Jews anywhere in the world can immigrate to Israel and become citizens. See Settlement and Aliyah.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/israeli

Israeli Border Police

(“Mishmar Hagvul” in Hebrew) Also known by the Hebrew abbreviation “Magav.” A police unit that is under the authority of the Israeli army general chief of staff. This unit often works in the West Bank and Jerusalem. See Cohen, Samy. “Between Humanitarian Logic and Operational Effectiveness: How the Israeli Army Faced the Second Intifada.” Democracies at War against Terrorism: A Comparative Perspective. Samy Cohen, Ed. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008.

Israeli Independence Day

Known in Hebrew as Yom Ha'Atzmaut, it is celebrated on the 5th day of the Jewish calendar’s month of Iyar, and marks the date that Israel declared itself an independent state on May 14, 1948. Many Israelis and Jews worldwide celebrate it as a day marking the beginning of national Jewish liberation and of ending centuries, if not millennia, of Jewish persecution. Palestinians view this day as part of Al-Nakba (Arabic for “the catastrophe”), which encompasses fighting previous to Israel’s declaration of independence as well as the subsequent War of 1948 between Israel and surrounding Arab states. During Al-Nakba, 700,000-800,000 Palestinians either fled or were expelled from their homes, most of whom were never allowed or able to return.  See also War of 1948, 1948 and Al-Nakba.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/israeli-independence-day

Israeli Military Service

Israeli Law requires that all Israeli citizens and permanent residents begin serving in the Israeli army at the age of 18. Effective in 1948 and codified in 1986, the National Defense Service Law requires men to serve three years and women to serve 20-21 months. All non-Jewish women, Palestinian Arab men (except Druze, who since 1956 must serve) and ultra-Orthodox Jews are automatically exempt from service, although volunteers from these groups are occasionally admitted and the Israeli state encourages some Bedouins to join. Reserve service is required until the age of 51 in the case of men, and 24 in the case of women. For a version of the 1986 National Defense Service Law, see “Defence Service Law (Consolidated Version), 5746-1986.” Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 18 July 2011. http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/MFAArchive/1980_1989/Defence+Service+Law+-Consolidated+Version--+5746-1.htm.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/israeli-military-service

Israeli National Service

National service is an alternative community service option for Israeli youth who, because of religious, moral or medical reasons, do not wish to or cannot serve in the Israeli military. Women often opt for this service, especially religious Jewish Israeli women. It is important to note that Israeli youth who choose to not serve in the Israeli military as conscientious objectors have served time in prison before going into their national service. Proposals by parliamentary representatives in 2008 suggested legislation that would make national or community service compulsory for Palestinian Arab citizens of Israel, who are for the most part exempt from military service. This proposed legislation was not instituted as law, though it caused major controversies in the Palestinian Arab community in Israel. See Sherer, Moshe. “National Service in Israel: Motivations, Volunteer Characteristics, and Levels of Content.” Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly. Vol. 33, No. 94 (2004), pp. 94-108; and Stern, Yoav. “Opposition to national service in Israel’s Arab sector is bitter.” Haaretz. 8 April 2008. http://www.haaretz.com/news/opposition-to-national-service-in-israel-s-arab-sector-is-bitter-1.243528http://www.justvision.org/glossary/israeli-national-service

Israeli Security Agency/Shin Bet

Also known as Shabak, the Hebrew acronym for "Sherut haBitachon haKlali" or "General Security Service." This agency conducts security intelligence work within Israel and the Occupied Palestinian Territories, as opposed to the Mossad which deals with intelligence gathering on the international front. The agency is especially involved in providing intelligence about organizations and individuals it deems to be involved in terrorist activities. See the agency’s website at http://www.shabak.gov.il/english/Pages/default.aspx.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/israeli-security-agencyshin-bet

Israeli Solidarity Activists

Israeli citizens, both Jewish and Palestinian Arab, that join Palestinian-led demonstrations and other direct actions in East Jerusalem and the West Bank. Anarchists Against the Wall was one of the first Israeli groups to be invited to join Palestinian protests against the Israeli Separation Barrier in the village of Budrus in 2003. Since that time, a slowly growing number of Israeli citizens and organizations have regularly taken part in Palestinian nonviolent actions throughout East Jerusalem and the West Bank, typically in areas affected by the Separation Barrier and Jewish Israeli settlements. For more information about this phenomenon, see Dana, Joseph and Noam Sheizaf. “The New Israeli Left.” The Nation. 28 March 2011. http://www.thenation.com/article/159164/new-israeli-left?page=0,2.

Israeli-Egyptian Peace Treaty

Also known as the Camp David Accords. Formally signed in March 1979. At Camp David in September 1978, Egyptian President Anwar Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin reached a bilateral agreement with assistance and pressure from American President Jimmy Carter. The agreement stipulated that Israel would return the Sinai Peninsula in exchange for recognition and peace with Egypt, thereby establishing a precedent for “land-for-peace” negotiations and for 100% return. These bilateral negotiations also prompted Egypt’s temporary ouster from the Arab League for breaking with Arab unity against normalizing relations with Israel. The Agreements also called for talks between Israel, Jordan, Egypt and Palestinian representatives to create a framework for negotiations regarding the status of the West Bank and Gaza Strip, leading to Palestinian autonomy, but not independence. These goals were never met, although Egypt and Israel have both respected the peace treaty between them. The hopes of Israelis for warm relations never materialized; Israelis refer to it as a “cold peace”. See Gresh, Alain and Dominique Vidal. “Camp David Accords.” The New A-Z of the Middle East. New York: IB Tauris, 2004.

Israeli-Jordanian Peace Treaty

Signed in 1994 by Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and Jordanian King Hussein, the treaty normalized relations and also settled on the Jordan River as the border between the two countries. Other issues, such Palestinian refugees (60% of Jordan’s population), were left for future negotiations between Israel and the Palestinian Authority. The Egyptian government welcomed the agreement, while Syria ignored it, and the Lebanese Hezbollah militia responded by firing rockets into northern Israel on the day of the treaty’s signing. An Israeli-Jordanian trade agreement followed in 1996. See Bickerton, Ian R. and Carla L. Klausner. A History of the Arab-Israeli Conflict. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2007.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/israeli-jordanian-peace-treaty

Jabalia Refugee Camp

A Palestinian refugee camp in the Gaza Strip, located just north of Gaza City and beside the village of Jabalia. Est. population in 2007: 41,933, though the registered refugee population of the camp is much higher.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/jabalia-refugee-camp

Jabotinsky, Ze'ev

(1880-1940) A Jewish Zionist of Russian origin. Jabotinksy came to Palestine first as a soldier with the British Jewish Legion during World War I, a legion that Jabotinsky helped construct. The founder of Revisionist Zionism in 1925, he sponsored a more assertive and non-socialist approach to building the Jewish homeland in Palestine than that of Labor Zionism. He also became a supporter of militant actions against the British presence in Palestine in order to more quickly assert the Jewish right to political sovereignty in the area. See Shlaim, Avi. The Iron Wall: Israel and the Arab World. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2001; and “Ze’ev (Vladimir) Jabotinsky.” Jewish Virtual Library. 9 September 2011. http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/biography/jabotinsky.html.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/jabotinsky-zeev

Jaffa

(Yaffa in Arabic and Yafo in Hebrew) A city in central Israel, adjacent to the city of Tel Aviv. Est. population in 2009, combined with the city of Tel Aviv: 393,200; Jaffa’s residents include both Palestinian Arab and Jewish citizens of Israel. It is one of the most important port cities in Israel.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/jaffa

Jayyous

A Palestinian village in the northern West Bank, located northeast of the city of Qalqilia and just east of the Green Line. Est. population in 2007: 2,894. Jayyous was the first Palestinian village to hold regular protests against Israel’s Separation Barrier that cuts through the village. These protests lasted from 2002-2010, when the village decided to end protests due to hardship and fatigue.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/jayyous

Jenin

A Palestinian city in the far northern West Bank; there is also an adjacent refugee camp by the same name. Est. population in 2007: 39,0044.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/jenin

Jenin Invasion/Incursion

On April 3, 2002, Israeli forces attacked the Jenin refugee camp in the northern West Bank as part of what it named Operation Defensive Shield, which was the largest military mobilization in the West Bank since the War of 1967. The Israeli military framed the invasion of the camp as a defensive measure against suspected militants, a response to six suicide bombings inside Israel in the two prior weeks that claimed 56 lives and injured hundreds. Allegations of a massacre in Jenin spread immediately after the operation. International media sources estimated casualties in the first days approaching the hundreds, and the final casualty numbers remain in dispute, hovering between 48 to 56 Palestinians, including civilians, and 23 to 33 Israeli soldiers. Some Jenin camp residents still claim 200 Palestinians were killed. Israel broke international law during the invasion; Amnesty International reported that the Israeli military blocked humanitarian assistance to the camp and denied the Palestinian wounded medical assistance, and that the operation left 3,000 Palestinians homeless. Human Rights Watch criticized the Israeli military for destroying over 35 percent of the refugee camp. For Palestinians, the attack on the Jenin refugee camp quickly became an important symbol of Israel’s oppression, while Israelis cite it as an example of baseless massacre allegations. See Gresh, Alain and Dominique Vidal. The New A-Z of the Middle East. New York: IB Tauris, 2004; Kumaraswamy, P.R. Historical Dictionary of the Arab-Israeli Conflict. Oxford: The Scarecrow Press, 2006; Mattar, Philip, ed. Encyclopedia of the Palestinians. New York: Facts on File, 2005; “Israel and the Occupied Territories Shielded from Scrutiny: IDF violations in Jenin and Nablus.” 4 November 2002. Amnesty International. 26 September 2011. http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/info/MDE15/143/2002; and “Jenin: IDF Military Operations.” Human Rights Watch. May 2002. 31 October 2011. http://www.hrw.org/reports/2002/israel3/.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/jenin-invasionincursion-marchapril-2002

Jericho

A Palestinian city in the central West Bank, located northeast of Jerusalem and close to the Jordanian border. Est. population in 2007: 18,346. Archaeologists consider it to be one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/jericho

Jerusalem

Known as Al-Quds (“The Holy”) in Arabic and Yerushalayim or Zion in Hebrew. A city located in the center of both Israel and the West Bank portion of the Occupied Palestinian Territories. In 2009, it was home to approximately 769,400 people from all three monotheistic religions, as well as sacred sites from these faiths within close proximity, including the Western Wall, the Al-Aqsa Mosque and the Church of the Holy Sepulcher. The Green Line, or the 1949 cease-fire line between Israel, Egypt, Jordan, Syria and Lebanon, demarcates the unofficial boundary between Israel and the West Bank, and divides Jerusalem. Israel immediately declared Jerusalem as its capital in 1948, and enshrined this declaration in its Basic Laws in 1980. Palestinians aspire to declare East Jerusalem as the capital of a future Palestine. Following the War of 1967, Israel extended its sovereignty to the eastern half of the city, including the Old City and the holy shrines, which had been controlled by Jordan since 1948. Israel “unified” East and West Jerusalem in its 1980 “Jerusalem Law,” leaving borders undefined. Most countries do not recognize Israeli sovereignty over the entire city, an opinion codified in United Nations Security Council Resolution 478. Rather, they regard Jerusalem’s status as undetermined, pending final status negotiations between Israel and the Palestinians. Palestinian residents living in East Jerusalem are neither Israeli citizens nor residents of the West Bank. They are free to travel in the West Bank and Israel, but face certain restrictions from the State of Israel (see Jerusalem ID). See “Jerusalem” Kumaraswamy, P.R. Historical Dictionary of the Arab-Israeli Conflict. Oxford: The Scarecrow Press, 2006. To read the text of the 1980 Basic Law regarding Jerusalem, see “Basic Law-Jerusalem-Capital of Israel.” Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 15 July 2011. http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/MFAArchive/1980_1989/Basic%20Law-%20Jerusalem-%20Capital%20of%20Israelhttp://www.justvision.org/glossary/jerusalem

Jerusalem ID

Also known as "blue IDs." These IDs are required for Palestinians to live and work in the city of Jerusalem. They provide municipal services, health insurance and building permits, but do not allow one to vote in Israeli elections nor hold an Israeli passport. Palestinian residents who live in East Jerusalem are able to travel freely throughout the West Bank and Israel, which is prohibited to Palestinians living in the West Bank and Gaza. In order to reside legally in Jerusalem, Palestinians without Jerusalem IDs have to apply with the Israeli Interior Minister, who can refuse applications without justification. Numerous restrictions are placed on Palestinian residents with Jerusalem IDs that do not apply to Israeli citizens or Jewish permanent residents. Restrictions include losing your residency if you travel abroad without a re-entry visa, living abroad (this includes the West Bank) for longer than seven years, marrying a spouse who is not a resident and does not apply for family reunification, and establishing residency outside of Jerusalem. Only children whose fathers hold Jerusalem IDs are eligible to obtain resident status. Those without Jerusalem IDs are denied educational and health services in Jerusalem. Between 1967 (when Israel annexed Jerusalem) and 2009, the Israeli government confiscated 13,115 identity cards from Palestinian residents of East Jerusalem. See “East Jerusalem.” B’tselem. 19 August 2011. http://www.btselem.org/jerusalemhttp://www.justvision.org/glossary/jerusalem-id

Jerusalem Media & Communication Centre (JMCC)

Established by Palestinian journalists and researchers in 1988, JMCC seeks to “empower both Palestinians and internationals by disseminating information on the Palestinian-Israeli conflict and Palestinian politics.” JMCC disseminates this information by translating major Arabic news sources into English, conducting polls on Palestinian attitudes on the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, and partnering in the publishing of the online Bitterlemons publications. See the Centre’s website at http://www.jmcc.org.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/jerusalem-media-communication-centre-jmcc

Jerusalem Post

An Israeli, English-language newspaper that was named The Palestine Post prior to the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948. More fiscally conservative in its economic positions, the paper has a partnership with The Wall Street Journal. See the newspaper’s website at http://www.jpost.com.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/jerusalem-post

Jewish Agency

Established by the World Zionist Organization (WZO) in 1929 as a partnership between the WZO and non-Zionist Jewish leaders and in accordance with the League of Nations Mandate for Palestine (1922) that called for “a Jewish agency”  to assist in the "establishment of the Jewish National Home . . . in Palestine." Prior to the establishment of Israel in 1948, the Jewish Agency facilitated the settlement of Jews in Palestine and focused on building strong economic, social and military foundations for the Jewish population. Once Israel became a state, the Agency continued to settle Jews from around the world in Israel and simultaneously built up cultural and economic infrastructure to support such settlement. Today, the organization operates in close to 80 countries. See the Jewish Agency’s website at http://www.jafi.org.il/.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/jewish-agency

Jewish Democratic State Debate

According to the official definition, Israel is a “Jewish Democratic State,” which was enshrined into law and endorsed by the Israeli High Court of Justice. In 1992, the Israeli parliament passed a Basic Law regarding Human Dignity and Liberty, which stated,  “The Purpose of this Basic Law is to protect human dignity and liberty, in order to establish in a Basic Law the values of the State of Israel as a Jewish and democratic state.” The tension between these two terms functioning in a multi-ethno-religious state such as Israel, where approximately 1 in 5 citizens is not Jewish, has led to a great deal of debate. Gavison, Ruth, “Jewish and Democratic? A Rejoinder to the “Ethnic Democracy” Debate.” Israeli Studies, Vol. 4, No. 1 (March 1999); and Oz-Salberger, F. “But is it Good for Democracy? Israel’s Dilemna.” World Affairs Vol. 173, No. 1 (2010), pp. 62-69.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/jewish-democratic-state-debate

Jewish National Fund (JNF)

Established in 1901 to buy and develop land in Palestine for Jewish settlement and to create a Jewish homeland. After its first 50 years of purchasing land in Palestine, the JNF spent the following 50 years developing the land, including the land of abandoned and destroyed Palestinian Arab villages, by planting over 220 million trees, building neighborhood infrastructure, and settling Jewish immigrants. The JNF is currently focusing its efforts on developing the Negev Desert, which is 60% of Israel’s land mass and includes the majority of Israel’s Arab Bedouin residents, for increased Jewish settlement and economic development. See the Fund’s website at http://www.jnf.org/.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/jewish-national-fund-jnf

Jezreel Valley

A valley in the lower Galilee region of northern Israel.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/jezreel-valley

Jihad

This Islamic idea is derived from the Arabic root meaning “to strive,” “to struggle” or “to make an effort.” It holds a wide range of meanings, from an internal spiritual struggle to perfect one’s faith to an overt and, at times, violent struggle to promote justice and Islamic legal and social codes. Jihad is closely identified with the injunction in the Qur’an to the Muslim community to “command the right and forbid the wrong” (3:104, 110). Modern Islamist groups, especially fundamentalist ones, have used jihad as a means of “preserving the sanctity of Islam” through actively resisting and often combating those they consider as a threat to the religion. This struggle may be against both individuals and regimes deemed “un-Islamic.” See Hashmi, Sohail H. “Jihad.” CQ Press in Context. 31 October  2011. http://www.cqpress.com/context/articles/epr_jihad.html.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/jihad

Jordan River

A river that runs 251 km from the Hula Valley in northern Israel, through the Jordan Valley in the West Bank and into the Dead Sea. The distribution of its waters is hotly disputed by Syrian, Jordanian, Palestinian and Israeli authorities.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/jordan-river

Jordan Valley

A large valley (125 km long and 15 km across) that forms the natural border between Israel and Jordan in the north and the eastern strip of the West Bank. It runs from Lake Tiberias in the north to the Dead Sea in the south. Most of the Jordan Valley is under Israeli military and civil control.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/jordan-valley

Joseph's Tomb

The tomb of the biblical and qur’anic figure Joseph (Yusef in Arabic and Yosef in Hebrew) is located in the city of Nablus in the northern West Bank. Joseph’s tomb is revered by Jews, Muslims and Christians as Joseph’s traditional burial site. Per the Oslo Accords, both Israel and the Palestinian Authority are required to protect the rights of worship and access of Jews, Christians, Muslims and Samaritans to the site. One of the most hotly contested religious sites in the Occupied Palestinian Territories, the tomb has been the site of recurring incidents of violence. In 2000, after a violent incidence with a Palestinian mob, Israel handed full control of the site over to the Palestinian police. The Israeli army still provides security for Jews wanting to visit the site. In 2011, a group of Jewish Israelis began making regular unauthorized visits to the tomb. See Mandel, Jonah. “Background: Joseph’s tomb remains source of conflict.” The Jerusalem Post. 26 April 2011. http://www.jpost.com/JewishWorld/JewishNews/Article.aspx?ID=217856&R=R1.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/josephs-tomb

Judea and Samaria

Biblical Hebrew terms for the southern (Judea) and northern (Samaria) regions of the West Bank. As official names, they are used by the Israeli government to refer to the West Bank (for example, see the Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs website at http://www.mfa.org). In common parlance, they are most often used by Jews who identify with the biblical history of the land and by individuals who support the Jewish Israeli settler movement.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/judea-and-samaria

Kafr Aqab

A Palestinian village within the Jerusalem municipal boundaries (in an area called East Jerusalem), located just south of the Palestinian city of Al-Bireh in the West Bank. Est. population in 2008: 14,315. The village is now on the West Bank side of Israel’s Separation Barrier, though the Israeli-run Jerusalem municipality maintains its services there and residents carry Jerusalem IDs. See Jerusalem and Jerusalem IDs.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/kafr-aqab

Kafr Kassem Massacre

Kafr Kassem is a town in central Israel with a predominantly Palestinian Arab population. On October 29, 1956, on the eve of Israel’s war with Egypt, Kafr Kassem was the site of a massacre in which 47 Palestinian Arab citizens of Israel, including women and children, were killed by Israeli border police. At that time, Israel feared that Jordan might attack, and placed Palestinian Arab villages near the Jordanian border under a wartime curfew. However, many Kafr Kassem residents were outside of the village when the curfew was first declared and Israeli police fired on them when they returned to the village past the curfew hour. An Israeli court later convicted the Israeli border policemen of murder. See Mattar, Philip, ed. Encyclopedia of the Palestinians. New York: Facts on File, 2005; and Stern, Yoav. “50 years after massacre, Kafr Qasem wants answers.” Haaretz. 30 October 2006. http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/spages/780569.html.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/kafr-kassem-massacre

Kahane, Meir

(1932-1990) A Jewish Israeli Orthodox rabbi and political figure of American origin. Kahane immigrated to Israel in 1971 and immediately founded the Kach party, which, among other things, called for the expulsion of Palestinians from Israel and the Occupied Palestinian Territories as well as the revocation of Israeli citizenship from non-Jews. Arrested tens of times, Kahane spent six months in jail in 1980 for allegedly planning to kill Palestinians in response to the murders of Jewish Israeli settlers. Kach finally gained enough votes for one parliament seat in 1984, which Kahane took. He was not able to run again in 1988 as Kach had been banned from the Israeli parliament for being racist and undemocratic. The party was later banned from Israel altogether after the Hebron massacre of February 25, 1994. Kahane was assassinated in New York City in November 1990. See Gresh, Alain and Dominique Vidal. The New A-Z of the Middle East. New York: IB Tauris, 2004; and Shyovitz, David. “Rabbi Meir Kahane.” Jewish Virtual Library. 31 October 2011. http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/biography/kahane.html.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/kahane-meir

Katsav, Moshe

(1945- ) A Jewish Israeli political figure of Iranian origin. Katsav was a member of the Likud party and began his political career as a member of the Israeli parliament in 1977. Some of his ministerial positions include the Minister of Labor and Welfare from 1984-1988, Transportation Minister from 1988-1992 and Deputy Prime Minister and Minster of Tourism from 1996-1999. Katsav became President of Israel, a position with very few executive powers, in 2000. He held that position until his resignation in 2007 amid allegations of raping a former government employee. In 2011, Katsav was sentenced to seven years in prison. “Moshe Katsav.” The Knesset. 28 September 2011. http://www.knesset.gov.il/president/eng/katzav_eng.htm; and Edelman, Ofra. “Katsav sentenced to 7 years.” Haaretz. 23 March 2011. http://www.haaretz.com/print-edition/news/katsav-sentenced-to-7-years-1.351210.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/katsav-moshe

Kfar Saba

A town in central Israel, located northwest of the city of Tel Aviv. Est. population in 2009: 83,500, predominantly Jewish Israelis.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/kfar-saba

Khan Younis

A Palestinian city located in the southern half of the Gaza Strip; there is also an adjacent refugee camp by the same name. Est. population in 2007: 142,637.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/khan-younis

Khatib, Ghassan

(1954- ) A Palestinian political and media figure. Khatib was a member of the Palestinian delegation to the Madrid Conference in 1991 and subsequent bilateral negotiations between Israel and the Palestinian Liberation Organization. He has always been a supporter of media advocacy and Palestinian-Israeli dialogue, leading the Jerusalem Media and Communications Centre in 2000, and soon after founding the online Bittlerlemons publications with Jewish Israeli Yossi Alpher. After serving in ministerial positions within the Palestinian Authority from 2002-2006, Khatib taught at Birzeit University. Currently, he is a spokesman for the Palestinian Authority, director of the Palestinian Government Media Center and a member of the Palestinian People’s Party. See “Ghassan Khatib.” The Huffington Post. 24 June 2011. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/ghassan-khatib.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/khatib-ghassan

Kibbutz

A community established by and for Jews and based on communal property. Members have no private property, but share the work and the profits of some collective enterprise, typically agricultural and sometimes industrial. Kibbutzim (plural for kibbutz) were initially founded in Palestine prior to World War I and based on socialist ideals. Currently, most kibbutzim are located in Israel, along with some in the West Bank; many have become privatized in the last few decades. See “The Kibbutz.” Jewish Virtual Library. 19 August 2011. http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Society_&_Culture/kibbutz.htmlhttp://www.justvision.org/glossary/kibbutz

Kibbutz Ein Hashofet

A kibbutz in northern Israel, located in the Galilee region about 30 km east of the city of Haifa. Est. population according the the kibbutz’s website (http://www.ein-hashofet.co.il/en/about): 800, predominantly Jewish Israelis.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/kibbutz-ein-hashofet

Kibbutz Hamadia

A kibbutz in northern Israel, located just north of the city of Beit She’an and west of the Jordanian border. It was named after a nearby abandoned Palestinian Arab village. Just Vision cannot find recent or reliable population statistics for Kibbutz Hamadia.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/kibbutz-hamadia

King Hussein bin Talal

(1935-1999) King of Jordan from 1952-1999. He drove out the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) from Jordan in 1970 because he viewed the PLO as a competing power with the Jordanian state; the Palestinian population in Jordan at that time comprised 60% of the entire populace. King Hussein was backed by the United States and Israel in his military action against the PLO, while his attacks on Palestinian fighters and civilians were seen as traitorous in the Arab world. He was also a major player in various Middle Eastern peace initiatives, including the drafting of United Nations Resolution 242 following the War of 1967 and the Madrid Conference in 1991. In 1994, King Hussein signed a peace treaty with Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin, effectively normalizing diplomatic and economic relations between Jordan and Israel. See “King Hussein I.” The Government of Jordan. 19 August 2011. http://www.kinghussein.gov.jo/biography.html; and Ashton, Nigel. King Hussein of Jordan: A Political Life. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 2008.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/king-hussein-bin-talal

Kiryat Arba

A Jewish Israeli settlement in the southern West Bank, located on the eastern outskirts of the Palestinian city of Hebron. Est. population in 2009: 7,300.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/kiryat-arba

Knesset

The legislature of the State of Israel, located in Jerusalem, and consisting of 120 members. Knesset members are known as “MKs.” The Government of the State of Israel must be approved by a majority vote of the Knesset. See the Knesset Web site at http://www.knesset.gov.il/index.html.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/knesset

Kook, Rabbi Avraham Yitzhak HaCohen

(1865-1935) A Jewish rabbi of Russian origi. Kook immigrated to Palestine in 1904. He was involved in efforts to secure the Balfour Declaration, which declared British support of a future homeland for the Jews in Palestine. In 1921, he was appointed the Ashkenazi Rabbi of Jerusalem and soon after became the first Ashkenazi Chief Rabbi of Eretz Israel. As part of his theological beliefs surrounding Jewish settlement of the biblical land of Israel, he tried to build channels of communication between secular Jewish Zionists, religious Jewish Zionists and non-Zionist Orthodox Jews. Kook believed God’s plan for the Jewish people and the messianic era of peace in the world would come through the Zionist movement to establish a Jewish state. See Ish-Shalom, Benjamin. Rav Avraham Itzhak HaCohen Kook: Between Rationalism and Mysticism. New York: State University of New York, 1993; and Rachmani, Rav Hillel. “Rabbi Abraham Isaac Kook.” Jewish Virtual Library. 19 August 2011. http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/biography/Rav_Kook.html.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/kook-rabbi-avraham-yitzhak-hacohen

Labor Party

(Mifleget Havodah in Hebrew) An Israeli political party, first named Mapai, that emerged out of the Labor Zionist movement of the 1930s, which was based on socialist ideas. The party’s leaders include many of the principal founders of the State of Israel, including the first Israeli Prime Minister, David Ben-Gurion. Labor dominated the Israeli government until 1977, when the rival Likud party came into power. Labor came to power again  in the 1990s, emerging as the leading Israeli political party favoring territorial compromise for peace and the party that first officially recognized the Palestinian Liberation Organization. After the collapse of the Oslo Process and the onset of the Second Intifada, Labor lost control of the Prime Ministership. In 2006, several key Labor party members joined with dissident Likud party members to form the Kadima party, and in 2011, Labor Chairman Ehud Barak broke away with four other Labor party lawmakers to form the Independence party. See “Labor.” 1 February 2008. YNet News. 28 September 2011. http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-3498355,00.html; Sanders, Edmund. “Israel’s Labor Party splits; Ehud Barak forms new faction.” Los Angeles Times. 17 January 2011. http://articles.latimes.com/2011/jan/17/world/la-fg-israel-labor-party-20110118; and Kershner, Isabel. “Israel’s New Labor Leader Faces a Party in Decline.” The New York Times. 22 September 2011. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/09/23/world/middleeast/Shelly-Yachimovich-new-leader-for-israels-labor-party.htmlhttp://www.justvision.org/glossary/labor-party

Labor Zionism

Founded in the early 1900s, Labor Zionism was influenced by socialist principles, specifically that a Jewish homeland could only be created through and based on the collective efforts of the Jewish working class. The current Labor party emerged from this form of Zionism. See also Zionism. See online: Israel: A Country Study. 1988. Library of Congress. 31 October 2011. http://countrystudies.us/israel/11.htm.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/labor-zionism

Land Day

Observed annually on March 30, Land Day was initiated by Palestinian Arab citizens of Israel as a day of protest against the State of Israel’s expropriation of Palestinian-owned lands. The first Land Day took place in 1976, when violent clashes erupted over Israel’s public declaration to confiscate 5,500 acres from Palestinian villages in the Galilee region. Israeli security forces killed six Palestinian Arab demonstrators in addition to wounding and arresting hundreds more. The day is honored both by Palestinian Arab citizens of Israel and Palestinians within the Occupied Palestinian Territories in commemoration of all Palestinians who have died in order to keep their lands and identity. See “Palestinian Land Day: Frequently Asked Questions.” 29 March 2004. Miftah. 19 August 2011. http://www.miftah.org/Display.cfm?DocId=3410&CategoryId=4.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/land-day

Lapid, Yosef (Tomi)

(1941- 2008) A Jewish Israeli media and political figure. Lapid began his media career with the Israeli newspaper Maariv and served as the director-general of the Israeli Broadcasting Authority. His political career began in the 1990s when he joined the secular Shinui party and later became the party’s chairman. Lapid served as a member of Israeli parliament from 1999-2006 as well as Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Justice from 2003-2004. After Shinui fell apart in 2006, Lapid was appointed Chairman of Yad Vashem, the Holocaust Martyrs’ and Heroes’ Remembrance Authority. See “Joseph Lapid, journaist and ex-justice minister of Israel, dies at 77.” The New York Times.1 June 2008. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/06/01/world/africa/01iht-obits.4.13373050.html.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/lapid-yosef-tomi

Lebanon War (2006)

Known in Lebanon as the July War and in Israel as the Second Lebanon War. This military conflict began on July 12, 2006 when Hezbollah militiamen crossed from Lebanon into Israel, kidnapping two Israeli soldiers and killing three others. The attack partially related to Hezbollah’s ongoing campaign to claim the Sheba’a Farms, a small stretch of land bordering Israel, Syria and Lebanon, for Lebanon. Hezbollah spokespersons, however, described the kidnapping as a strategy to secure the release of Lebanese and Palestinian prisoners in Israeli jails. Five more Israeli soldiers died in an operation to rescue the abducted soldiers. During the 34-day war that followed, Israel’s military actions targeted Lebanese infrastructure and Hezbollah bases and also widely damaged civilian areas, killing over 1,000 Lebanese and displacing almost one million. Israel also implemented a blockade of the entire Lebanese coast. Concurrently, Hezbollah launched hundreds of missiles into northern Israel, killing dozens and causing 300,000-500,000 Israelis to flee from the north of the country. A United Nations-brokered ceasefire went into effect on August 14, 2006, though the Israeli naval blockade of Lebanon lasted until September 8. See Achcar, Gilbert. The 33-day war: Israel’s war with Hezbollah in Lebanon and its consequences. Boulder: Paradigm Publishers, 2007; Cossali, Paul. “Arab-Israeli Relations 1967-2006.” Europa Regional Surveys of the World: The Middle East and North Africa 2007, 53rd ed. New York: Routledge, 2007; ”Day-by-day: Lebanon crisis.” BBC. 17 August 2006. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/4776627.stm; and “Hizbullah attacks northern Israel and Israel's response.” 12 July 2006. Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 31 October 2011. http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/Terrorism-+Obstacle+to+Peace/Terrorism+from+Lebanon-+Hizbullah/Hizbullah+attack+in+northern+Israel+and+Israels+response+12-Jul-2006.htm.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/lebanon-war-2006

Lehi

(A Hebrew acronym for “Lohamei Herut Yisrael” or “Fighters for the Freedom of Israel”) Also known as the Stern Gang, after Lehi’s leader Avraham Stern. In 1940, this militant faction broke away from the Irgun, an underground Jewish paramilitary group. Lehi undertook paramilitary operations against both Palestinian Arab communities and the British throughout British mandate Palestine. The group was responsible for the assassination of the British Minister of State for the Colonies, Lord Moyn, as well as the UN Swedish mediator Folke Bernadotte. On April 9, 1948, members of Lehi and the Irgun attacked the Palestinian Arab village of Deir Yassin, where 100-250 Arabs were killed. The group was completely disbanded and became part of the Israeli army in September 1948. Yitzhak Shamir, later to become Prime Minister of Israel, was one of Lehi’s leaders. See Morris, Benny. Righteous Victims: A History of the Zionist-Arab Conflict, 1881-2001. New York: Vintage Books, 2001; Smith, Charles D. Palestine and the Arab-Israeli Conflict, 5th ed. Boston: University of Arizona, 2004; and “Lohamei Herut Yisrael.” Jewish Virtual Library. 31 October 2011. http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/History/lehi.html.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/lehi 

Leibowitz, Yeshayahu

(1903-1994) A Jewish Israeli intellectual and scientist of Latvian origin. Leibowitz moved to Palestine in 1935. Leibowitz argued against the occupation of the territories gained during the War of1967, warning that occupation morally destroys the conqueror. He also supported military conscientious objection to serving in the territories and Lebanon (see War of 1982). See Steinberg, Avi. “The Second Coming of Yeshayahu Liebowitz.” Noveber 2005. Zeek. 28 September 2011. http://www.zeek.net/politics_0511.shtml; and “Yeshayahu Liebowitz.” Jewish Virtual Library. 28 September 20011. http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/biography/yleib.html.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/leibowitz-yeshayahu

Likud Party

(Hebrew for “union”) An Israeli political party that emerged out of the Revisionist Zionist movement, which focused on immediate Jewish settlement in the entire area of British mandate Palestine. Until recently, Likud was ideologically opposed to any territorial compromise with the Palestinians. Its first electoral victory for a majority in the Israeli parliament came in 1977. In 1978, Likud Prime Minster Menachem Begin signed a peace treaty with Egypt, which involved Israeli military and civilian withdrawal from the Sinai Peninsula. Begin soon after launched the War of 1982 in Lebanon. In 1991, Likud Prime Minister Yitzhak Shamir headed the Israeli negotiation team at the Madrid Conference, spearheading Arab-Israeli direct negotiations. More recent Likud leaders, such as Benjamin Netanyahu, have led neo-liberalist economic measures. Dispute over Israel’s unilateral withdrawal from the Gaza Strip in August 2005 led Likud Prime Minister Ariel Sharon to leave the party and establish the Kadima party, which rivaled the Likud and won in the 2006 elections. Likud came into power again in 2009. See “Likud.” Knesset. 28 September 2011. http://www.knesset.gov.il/faction/eng/FactionPage_eng.asp?PG=13; and “Likud.” 1 February 2008. YNet News. 28 September 2011. http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-3498238,00.html.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/likud-party

Livni, Tzipi

(1958- ) A Jewish Israeli political figure with a law background. Livni was first elected to the Israeli parliament as part of the Likud party in 1999. Before leaving Likud in November 2005 to help form the Kadima party, she aided in brokering Israel’s controversial settlement withdrawal from Gaza (See Gaza Disengagement). Livni served as the Vice Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs from 2006-2009. After Prime Minister Ehud Olmert resigned from the Kadima chairmanship in July 2008, she was elected head of the party. Currently, Livni leads the opposition to the Netanyahu, Likud-led government. See “Tzipi Livni.” Jewish Virtual Library. 24 June 2011. http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/biography/TLivni.html.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/livni-tzipi

Ma'ale Adumim

A Jewish Israeli settlement in the central West Bank, located about 7km west of Jerusalem. Est. population in 2009: 34,100.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/maale-adumim

Machsom Watch

(Machsom is Hebrew for "checkpoint") Founded in 2001, this Israeli nonprofit organization includes women from diverse communities across Israel that oppose Israel’s military occupation of the Palestinian Territories. Members monitor Israeli military checkpoints and publicly report their findings in order to protect the rights of Palestinians as they cross checkpoints and to influence public opinion. See the organization’s website at http://www.machsomwatch.org/enhttp://www.justvision.org/glossary/machsom-watch

Madrid Conference

Also known as the Madrid Peace Talks or Madrid Summit. Refers to the international peace conference held in Madrid, Spain in 1991, following the First Gulf War. Co-sponsored by the United States and the Soviet Union, it was the first time that representatives from Israel, the Palestinian community and representatives from Arab countries that had not yet formally recognized Israel came together to discuss the prospects for peace in direct negotiations. US President George H.W. Bush saw it as redemption of pledges he had made to Arab leaders in setting up the anti-Saddam Hussein coalition during the First Gulf War; Israel was incensed by the inclusion of Palestinian Liberation Organization representatives, albeit as part of the Jordanian delegation. The talks were based on United Nations Resolutions 242 and 338 as well as the Camp David Accords of 1978, accepting the “land-for-peace” formula for resolving the Arab-Israeli conflict. It set up a system of multi- and bilateral committees, which met with few results until overtaken by the revelation of the Oslo Process between Israel and Palestinian representatives in August 1993. The Madrid Conference is generally seen as a precursor to Oslo, though formally unrelated. See Cleveland, William L. A History of the Modern Middle East. 2nd ed. Boulder: Westview Press, 2000; Smith, Charles D. Palestine and the Arab-Israeli Conflict, 5th ed. Boston: University of Arizona, 2004; and “The Madrid Framework.” 28 January 1999. Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 21 August 2011. http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/Peace+Process/Guide+to+the+Peace+Process/The+Madrid+Framework.htm.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/madrid-conference

Mandela, Nelson

(1918- ) South Africa’s most prominent black leader against the Apartheid regime. Mandela was imprisoned many times for his involvement in the African National Congress and its militant wing, Umkhonto we Sizwe, including from 1964-1982 when he was incarcerated at Robben Island Prison, and later at Pallsmoor Prison until 1990. Mandela became a strong advocate for nonviolence after his release from prison, and spear-headed the campaign that would eventually lead to multi-racial democracy in South Africa. He won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1993, and served as South Africa’s president from 1994-1999. See “Nelson Mandela: Biography.” Nobelprize.org. 19 October 2011. http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/laureates/1993/mandela-bio.htmlhttp://www.justvision.org/glossary/mandela-nelson

Mapai

(a Hebrew acronym for "Mifleget Poalei Eretz Yisrael" or "Worker's Party of the Land of Israel") An Israeli political party that grew out of Labor Zionism, which was based on socialist principles. The dominant party in Israeli politics prior to its establishment of the Labor party in 1968, Israel’s first president David Ben-Gurion was the head of Mapai. See Ben-Gurion, David. See online “Workers Party of Eretz Israel (Mapai).” Knesset.gov. 10 June 2011. http://www.knesset.gov.il/faction/eng/FactionPage_eng.asp?PG=77.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/mapai-

Martyr

Translated from the word “shahid” in Arabic, which literally means “witness.” In Islam, the term is used in many different instances, from witnessing a crime to being killed prematurely and from unnatural causes, such as a car accident. In the context of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, the word “shahid” or “martyr” is used to refer to Palestinians or supporters of the Palestinian cause who have been killed, died, or killed themselves in the conflict. It may thus refer to such individuals as: a suicide bomber, a Palestinian fighter or a Palestinian civilian killed by an Israeli in the context of the conflict. Many Palestinians also use “martyr” in reference to a Palestinian who dies outside of historic Palestine. See also Martyrdom Operation and Suicide Attack/Bombing. See Khalil, Laleh. Heroes and Martyrs of Palestine: The Politics of National Commemoration. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007. http://www.justvision.org/glossary/martyr

Martyrdom Operation

A term used predominantly in the Arab and Islamic world referring to militant operations carried out by a person seeking martyrdom. Like the term martyr, the meaning of “martyrdom operation” can vary depending on who is using the term and in what context. In most cases, the term is used to refer to militant operations during which the assailant deliberately sets out (and succeeds) in sacrificing himself/herself during the attack, with the intention of killing others as well. While the Western media commonly refers to such acts as “suicide bombings” or “terrorist attacks,” many Islamic organizations refer to them as “martyrdom operations,” since the act of suicide is forbidden in Islam. According to such organizations, the person carrying out the operation did not commit suicide but rather died as a martyr on behalf of a sacred cause. In the context of the Palestinian-Israeli conflict, martyrdom operations are mostly carried out by Islamist militant groups and individuals. However, it is important to recognize that the term “martyrdom operation” may be used to refer to operations during which there was no deliberate self-sacrificial intent. For example, members of a non-Islamic organization may die in a militant operation, without deliberately intending to do so, and the operation may nonetheless be referred to by some observers as a “martyrdom operation” since those who died are considered martyrs. See also Martyr and Suicide Attack/Bombing. See Malka, Haim. “Must Innocents Die? The Islamic Debate over Suicide Attacks.” Middle East Quarterly. Vol. 10, No.2 (Spring 2003), pp. 19-28. http://www.meforum.org/530/must-innocents-die-the-islamic-debate-over.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/martyrdom-operation

Marzel, Baruch

A Jewish Israeli political figure of American descent. He lives in the Jewish Israeli settlement of Kiryat Arba, which is located just east of the Palestinian city of Hebron in the southern West Bank. He used to be a spokesman for the Kach movement, which was barred from Israeli politics in 1988, and currently works with the National Union party, a national religious Zionist party. He also often leads groups of Jews into predominantly Palestinian areas in Israel and the West Bank as part of Jewish nationalist demonstrations or to demand Jewish access to and settlement near historic Jewish religious sites. See Jerusalem Post. 30 September 2011. http://newstopics.jpost.com/topic/Baruch_Marzel.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/marzel-baruch

Mas'ha

A Palestinian village in the central West Bank, located 6 km from the Green Line. Est. population in 2007: 2,003. For much of 2003, Mas’ha held an around-the-clock peace camp to protest Israel’s building of the Separation Barrier through the village. The barrier in Mas’ha was completed in late 2003, but the village’s peace camp inspired protests in other Palestinian villages along the planned route of the Separation Barrier.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/masha

Masada

A fortress built by the Romans in the first century BCE on a mountain in the Judean Desert overlooking the Dead Sea. Masada is a popular destination in southern Israel often frequented by Jewish tourists for its historical and symbolic meanings. From 70-73 CE, it served as a fortress for approximately one thousand Jewish zealots who rebelled against the Romans' destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem. When it appeared the Romans were close to conquering Masada, these Jews committed mass suicide upon the mountaintop. It has since become a symbol among the Zionist movement inspired by Yitzhak Lamdan's poem, Masada. See Azaryahu, Moaz and Aharon Kellerman. "Symbolic Places of National History and Revival: A Study in Zionist Mythical Geography." Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, Vol. 24, No. 1 (1999), pp. 109-123.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/masada

Meimad

(a Hebrew acronym for “Jewish state, democratic state”) An Israeli political party. Founded in 1988 by Rabbi Yehuda Amital as an Israeli movement aiming to transform the face of religious Zionism in Israel, with a special focus on challenging religious and political extremism. The Meimad movement formed a political party by the same name in 1999, supporting the idea of Israel as both a Jewish and democratic state.  Meimad joined a Labor party coalition from 1999-2009, but never ran independently in Israeli parliamentary elections. Meimad broke from Labor in 2009 and joined the Green Movement party; however, Meimad-Green Movement didn’t receive enough votes to gain a seat in parliament. See Arian, Asher and Michal Shamir, eds. The Elections in Israel: 2009. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Transaction Publishers, 2011; and Waldoks, Ehud Zion. “Green Movement, Meimad run together.” The Jerusalem Post. 18 December 2008. http://fr.jpost.com/servlet/Satellite?cid=1228728239843&pagename=JPost/JPArticle/ShowFull.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/meimad

Meir, Golda

(1898-1978) An Jewish Israeli political figure of Russian and American origin. Meir, a supporter of socialist Labor Zionism, immigrated to Palestine in 1921. She worked in several key Jewish Zionist organizations prior to the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948, including the Histadrut trade union and the Jewish Agency. One of the signatories of Israel’s Declaration of Independence, Meir served as an official in the government of Israel in various capacities, including  Minister of Labor from 1949-1956, Minister of Foreign Affairs from 1956-1966 and Prime Minister from 1969-1974. She is the only Israeli woman ever elected to the position of Prime Minister. Meir resigned in 1974 after being criticized both internally and abroad for the unpreparedness of the Israeli military prior to the War of 1973. See Herzog, Chaim. Arab-Israeli Wars. New York: Vintage Books, 2005; and “Golda Meir.” Jewish Virtual Library. 30 September 2011. http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/biography/meir.htmlhttp://www.justvision.org/glossary/meir-golda

Meretz

(Hebrew for “vitality”) An Israeli political party. Formed in 1992 with the merger of the Shinui, Mapam and Ratz parties and officially registered in 1996. Meretz has joined with other parties since 2004, but continues to call for a negotiated end to Israel’s occupation of the Palestinian Territories, human rights for all of Israel’s citizens as well as freedom of and freedom from religion. The party, currently named New Movement-Meretz, has three members in the Israeli parliament. See “Meretz.” 4 February 2008. YNet News. 30 September 2011. http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-3499193,00.html; and “We did not compromise. We took action.” New Movement-Meretz. 30 September 2011. http://www.myparty.org.il/pics/langs/4.pdf.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/meretz

Migron

A Jewish Israeli settlement outpost in the central West Bank, located 14 km north of Jerusalem and 7.7 km west of the Green Line. Just Vision is not able to find recent/reliable population data on Migron. See Outpost.

Mista’arevim

An Israeli military unit that dresses up as Palestinians and caries out undercover operations inside Palestinian cities. See Deflem, Mathieu. The Policing of Terrorism: Organizational and Global Perspectives. New York: Routledge, 2010, pp. 143-164.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/mista’arevim

Modi'in

A city in central Israel, located between the cities of Tel Aviv and Jerusalem and along the border of the West Bank. Est. population in 2009: 71,800. A Jewish Israeli settlement by the name of Modi’in Illit exists just east of this city, within the West Bank.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/modiin

Mofaz, Shaul

(1948- ) A Jewish Israeli political and military figure of Iranian origin. Mofaz immigrated to Israel in 1957. He had a long career in the Israeli military, his top post being that of Chief of the General Staff from 1998-2002. During the Second Intifada, he trained the Israeli military for guerilla warfare in the Occupied Palestinian Territories and increased the military’s use of Palestinian home demolitions and blockades of Palestinian areas. Mofaz entered politics in 2002, serving as Defense Minister until 2006 and Minister of Transportation from 2006-2009. In 2005, he switched party affiliations from Likud to the newly formed Kadima party. He still serves in the Israeli parliament as a member of Kadima. See Berf, Raffi. “Profile: Israeli defence chief Shaul Mofaz.” 3 November 2002. BBC. 221 August 2011. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/2381785.stm; and “Shaul Mofaz.” The Knesset. 21 August 2011. http://www.knesset.gov.il/mk/eng/mk_eng.asp?mk_individual_id_t=720.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/mofaz-shaul

Molotov Cocktail

An easily made incendiary device, Molotov cocktails are also called gas bombs or petrol bombs. They are frequently used by rioters, and were employed by some Palestinian protesters during the First Intifada.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/molotov-cocktail

Mosaic Communities

Established in 2003, this Israeli nonprofit organization formed a multi-national housing cooperative in order to establish integrated communities of Jews and Palestinian Arabs in Israel, with the goal of overcoming “institutionalized racism” in Israeli society. The organization no longer has a website. For more information about Mosaic’s past work, see “Mosaic Communities: Defying Institutionalized Racism.” 18 July 2003. The Jerusalem Fund. 21 August 2011. http://www.thejerusalemfund.org/ht/display/ContentDetails/i/2393; and “Friends of Mosaic Communities.” VolunteerMatch.org. 21 August 2011. http://www.volunteermatch.org/search/org54141.jsp.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/mosaic

Mossad

(Hebrew for “The Institute”) Israel’s external intelligence agency - the Israeli equivalent of the CIA or the British MI6. As such, the Mossad is responsible for many covert operations outside the State of Israel, as well as providing the Israeli Prime Minister with intelligence and strategic assessments.For the Mossad’s website, see http://www.mossad.gov.il//Eng/AboutUs.aspx.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/mossad

Mossawa

(Arabic for “equality”) Established in 1997, this Israeli nonprofit organization promotes equality for Palestinian Arab citizens of Israel. Their work includes advocacy in the Israeli government, socio-economic research, public awareness and capacity building of Palestinian Arab local councils and nonprofit organizations. See the organization’s website athttp://www.mossawacenter.org/.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/mossawa

Mount Hermon

A mountain whose summit is on the border between Syria and Lebanon, and is under Syrian control. Israel took control of part of the southern slopes of the mountain after the War of 1967.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/mount-hermon

Mujahid

(Arabic for “holy warrior” or a person who engages in “jihad”) In the late twentieth century, the term came to describe various armed fighters that subscribe to Islamist ideologies. According to some Islamic experts, jihad does not necessarily imply a military operation but a variety of actions done for God, including internal struggle with faith and sinful behavior. See also Jihad.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/mujahid

Nabi Elias

A Palestinian village in the northern West Bank, located 2 km east of the city of Qalqilia. Est. population in 2007: 1,171. A 2006 decision, followed by another decision in 2009, by the Israeli High Court ordered to Israeli government to reroute the barrier in Nabi Elias and pay compensation to the villagers.

Nabi Saleh

A Palestinian village in the central West Bank, located 20 km northwest of the city of Ramallah. Est. population in 2007: 534. Since December 2009, Nabi Saleh has held weekly protests against Israel’s Separation Barrier that cuts through the village.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/nabi-saleh

Nablus

A Palestinian city in the northern West Bank. Est. population in 2007: 126,132. Joseph’s tomb, a major religious site, is located in Nablus.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/nablus

Nasrallah, Hassan

A Lebanese Shi’a cleric, paramilitary leader and politician. He is the current Secretary-General of Hezbollah, a Lebanese Shi’a political party with a militant wing. Born in 1960 in Southern Beirut, Nasrallah studied the Qur’an and politics in Iraq before the Saddam Hussein regime expelled him and other Shi’a clerics in 1978. Nasrallah ascended the ranks of Hezbollah after its inception in 1982, and became its leader in 1992 after Israeli security forces killed Abbas Moussawi. Nasrallah is credited with the dramatic rise to power of Hezbollah in Lebanon’s political and social life in recent years. See Hartley, Cathy, ed. A Survey of Arab-Israeli Relations, 2nd ed. London and New York: Europa Publications, 2004; and Kaplan, Eben. “Profile: Hassan Nasrallah.” 11 August 2010. Council on Foreign Relations. 21 August 2011. http://www.cfr.org/lebanon/profile-hassan-nasrallah/p11132http://www.justvision.org/glossary/nasrallah-hassan

Nasser, Gamal Abdul

(1918-1970) President of Egypt from 1954-1970. Nasser came to power following the 1952 Free Officers' Coup in Egypt. As Egyptian President, he oversaw two regional wars with Israel, including the Suez Canal crisis in 1956 and the War of 1967, during which Israel captured the Sinai Peninsula, claiming it as a buffer zone. Nasser engaged in military action against the Israeli presence in the Sinai until his acceptance of the US-brokered Rogers Plan in 1970 that promised a return of the Sinai if Egypt ended hostilities with Israel; Israel, the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) and many Arab countries rejected this plan. Nasser was also well-known for his socialist and pan-Arab ideas, his harsh policies toward the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood and his support of the PLO. See Gordon, Joel. Nasser: Hero of the Arab Nation. Oxford, England: One World, 2006; and “Gamal Abdal Nasser.” Encyclopedia.com. 21 August 2011. http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/Gamal_Abdal_Nasser.aspxhttp://www.justvision.org/glossary/nasser-gamal-abdul

National Insurance Institute of Israel

An Israeli government agency that provides financial security and assistance to families in need. The Institute operates under the National Insurance Law, passed by the Israeli parliament in 1953. See the Institute’s website at http://www.btl.gov.il/English%20homepage/Pages/default.aspx.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/national-insurance-institute-israel

National Religious Party (MAFDAL)

Also known by the Hebrew acronym Mafdal. An Israeli political party formed in 1956. It promotes Judaism in public spheres (education, marriage, etc.) rather than the separation of religion and state, and believes in increasing a Jewish presence in the biblical land of Israel through the expansion of settlements. The party opposes a Palestinian state within the boundaries of the biblical land of Israel and thus refuses to recognize the Palestinian Authority. Since 2006, the party has run for elections in a partnership with the National Unity party. See “National Union-National Religious Party.” 4 February 2009. YNet News. 30 September 2011. http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-3499279,00.htmlhttp://www.justvision.org/glossary/national-religious-party-mafdal

National Unity Party

An Israeli political party. Founded in 1999 as a secular Israeli coalition party. It maintains a focus on security, and calls for the voluntary expulsion of Palestinian Arabs from East Jerusalem, the West Bank and Gaza to other Arab countries. Many of their constituencies are recent immigrants to Israel from the former Soviet Union. Since 2006, the party has run for elections in a partnership with the National Religious Party. See “National Union-National Religious Party.” 4 February 2009. YNet News. 30 September 2011. http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-3499279,00.html.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/national-unity-party

Nazareth

A city in northern Israel, located in the Galilee region. Est. population in 2009: 66,600, predominantly Palestinian Arab citizens of Israel. The city is a holy site for Christians who believe Jesus was raised there.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/nazareth

Negev

A desert comprising the southern one-third of Israel.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/negev

Netanya

A city in central Israel, located 30 km north of the city of Tel Aviv. Est. population in 2009: 180,200, predominantly Jewish Israelis.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/netanya

Netanyahu, Benjamin

(1949- ) A Jewish Israeli political figure. A long-time member of the Likud party. Netanyahu has served in numerous governmental positions, including Ambassador to the United Nations from 1984-1988, Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs from 1988-1991, Deputy Minister in the Prime Minister’s cabinet from 1990-1991, Minister of Finance from 2003-2005 and Prime Minister from 1996-1999 and 2009 to the present. During his long political career, he has participated in several peace processes with the Palestinians and Arab states, such as the 1991 Madrid Conference and the proceeding talks in Washington, the signing of the Wye River Memorandum - part of the Oslo Process - with Palestinian Authority Chairman Yasser Arafat in 1998, and the most recent round of peace talks hosted by the United States in late 2010. He resigned from his position as Finance Minister to protest the 2005 Israeli withdrawal of settlements from Gaza (see Gaza Disengagement) and has often vowed to continue building in the Jewish Israeli settlements located in the West Bank. See Gresh, Alain and Dominique Vidal. The New A-Z of the Middle East. New York: IB Tauris, 2004; and “Profile: Benjamin Netanyahu.” 20 February 2009. BBC. 27 June 2011. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/2393677.stm.  http://www.justivision.org/glossary/netanyahu-benjamin

Netzarim

A former Jewish Israeli settlement in the Gaza Strip, located south of Gaza City. Netzarim was the last settlement evacuated in August 2005 in accordance with Israel’s “Gaza Disengagement.”  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/netzarim

Neve Shalom/Wahat Al-Salam

(Hebrew and Arabic for “Oasis of Peace”) A village in central Israel, located between the cities of Jerusalem and Tel Aviv. Est. population in 2010: 60 families, including Jewish and Palestinian Arab citizens of Israel. Established in 1969 with the goal of engaging in "educational work for peace, equality and understanding between the two peoples." See the village’s website at http://nswas.org/. http://www.justvision.org/glossary/neve-shalomwahat-al-salam

New Israel Fund

A nonprofit organization based in Israel, North America and Europe. The Fund provides funding, technical training and networking support to Israeli organizations that advance civil and human rights, promote religious tolerance, and endeavor to combat socioeconomic inequality in Israel. See the organization’s website at http://www.nif.org.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/new-israel-fund

New Profile

An Israeli nonprofit organization based on feminist ideology that defines itself as “a movement for the civil-ization of Israeli society.” It critiques various aspects of militarization within Israeli society, including the belief that military service is the best expression of Israeli citizenship. New Profile provides support for both conscientious objectors, who often face imprisonment for refusing compulsory service in the Israeli army, and for those who avoid conscription by having themselves declared medically unfit for service. The organization calls for a “civil-ized” society in which Israeli citizens can legally refuse to serve in the army. See the organization’s website at http://www.newprofile.org/english/.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/new-profile

Ni'lin

A Palestinian village in the central West Bank, located 17km west of the city of Ramallah and 3 km east of the Green Line. Est. population in 2007: 4,573. In 2004, Ni’lin began holding regular protests against Israel’s Separation Barrier that cuts through the village.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/nilin

Nitzana

An educational community located in the south of Israel in the Negev Desert, near the border between Israel and Egypt. The Jewish Agency helped to establish Nitzana as a Zionist community to teach about the desert in experiential ways while also promoting tolerance by bringing together religious, secular and minority Jewish Israeli youth. Nitzana also acts as an absorption center every year for 100 recent Jewish immigrants from Russia, Ethiopia and the United States; these immigrants take part in a one-year program where they learn Hebrew, among other things, and are prepared to serve in the Israeli army. See “About the Nitzana Educational Community.” Jewish Agency for Israel. 30 September 2011. http://www.jewishagency.org/JewishAgency/English/Israel/PriorityRegions/Nitzana/About.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/nitzana

Normalization

Refers to the process of creating ‘normal’ diplomatic and economic relations between the State of Israel and its Arab neighbors. Egypt was the first to normalize relations in 1979 and was expelled from the Arab League for a time; Jordan followed suit in 1994. Normalization prior to the creation of a Palestinian state is viewed by many Palestinians and their supporters as a betrayal of the Palestinian struggle for self-determination. The Arab Peace Initiative is the most comprehensive offer of normalization by the Arab world, under the condition of Palestinian statehood, although different parties view the normalization with tremendous skepticism. Israeli and Palestinian groups or individuals willing to work with their counterparts toward a solution to the conflict or to work together as if “things are normal” have also been accused of normalization. For different perspectives on official normalization between Arab states and Israel, see “Arab normalization gestures to Israel.” 23 July 2009. Bitterlemons-international.org. 8 August 2011. http://www.bitterlemons-international.org/previous.php?opt=1&id=282. For a perspective against Palestinian normalization with the Israeli state but supportive of certain joint Israeli-Palestinian grassroots endeavors, see Ibrahim, Nassar and Michael Warschawski. “The Case Against Palestinian Normalization with Israel.” 4 September 2007. Alternative Information Center. 8 August 2011. http://www.alternativenews.org/english/index.php/blogs/nassar-ibrahim/986-the-case-against-palestinian-normalization-with-israel. For a background on different kinds of joint Palestinian-Israeli ventures and their challenges, see Edy Kaufman, Walid Salem, and Juliette Verhoeven, Eds. Bridging the Divide: Peacebuilding in the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2005.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/normalization

Nusseibeh, Sari

(1949- ) A Palestinian political and intellectual intellectual figure. Politically, he served in several positions within Fatah and most recently as the Palestinian Liberation Organization representative in Jerusalem in 2002. Currently, Nusseibeh is a professor and President of Al Quds University. He has proposed several peace agreements, such as the People’s Voice Initiative - a grassroots initiative to support a two-state solution - that he co-authored with former Israeli security head Ami Ayalon in 2002. In 2010, Nusseibeh publicly stated that, due to the reality of settlements in the West Bank and East Jerusalem, he believed a two-state solution to be almost impossible. See “Sari Nusseibeh.” Jewish Virtual Library. 22 August 2011. http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/biography/nusseibeh.html; and “A Palestinian state had become impossible.” 6 January 2010. Le Figaro. 22 August 2011. http://warincontext.org/2010/01/19/a-palestinian-state-has-become-impossible/.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/nusseibeh-sari

Occupation

The term “Occupation” is used to refer to Israel’s military control of the West Bank, East Jerusalem and Gaza Strip since 1967. It may also refer to Israel’s occupation of the Syrian Golan Heights. Israel annexed the Golan Heights in 1981; however, international legal bodies do not recognize the annexation. See also Occupied Palestinian Territories and Golan Heights.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/occupation

Occupied Palestinian Territories

Also known as the Territories, “East Jerusalem, the West Bank and Gaza,” the Occupied Territories or “Judea, Samaria and Gaza.” The term generally refers to two non-contiguous territories captured by Israel following the War of 1967, but does not usually include the Golan Heights. East Jerusalem, the West Bank and Gaza are considered occupied by much of the international community and are treated as such by many international legal instruments. The Territories, or some part of, are slated to be the basis for an independent Palestine. Some members of the Israeli government refer to the Occupied Palestinian Territories as “disputed territory,” while certain factions in Israel consider the territory an integral part of biblical Israel and thus modern political Israel. See International Law, ‘Occupied’/ ‘Disputed’ Territory Debate” and War of 1967.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/occupied-palestinian-territories

October 2000 Events

Following the outbreak of the Second Intifada in September 2000, Palestinian Arab citizens of Israel demonstrated in a number of villages and cities, expressing solidarity with Palestinians in East Jerusalem, the West Bank and Gaza and protesting against what they claim is inequality and neglect within Israel. Some demonstrations resulted in violence and Israeli police used rubber bullets and live ammunition, killing 13 Palestinian Arab citizens of Israel. The clashes were investigated by a special committee of inquiry – the Orr Commission – headed by an Israeli Supreme Court Justice. The commission found that police used excessive force in quelling the riots and exhibited prejudice against the Palestinian minority; however, it did not name individuals responsible for the killings. The commission also accused the Israeli government of neglect and bias with regard to its treatment of the Palestinian Arab Israeli population, but also condemned Palestinian Arab Israeli politicians for incitement. The events highlighted and deepened the rift between Palestinian Arab and Jewish citizens of Israel and is remembered with bitterness by Palestinian Arab Israelis. See Bligh, Alexander, ed. The Israeli Palestinians: an Arab Minority in the Jewish State. London: Frank Cass, 2003; and “Official Commission of Inquiry into the October 2000 events.” March 2004. Adalah. 22 August 2011. http://www.adalah.org/eng/commission.php.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/october-2000-events

Ohr Somayach Yeshiva

A Jewish religious school in Jerusalem. The school caters to Diaspora Jews, typically those from the United States, and focuses on Jewish identity formation through the teaching of Jewish history, philosophy, religious texts and the Hebrew language. See the school’s website at http://ohr.edu/.

Olmert, Ehud

(1945- ) A Jewish Israeli political figure and lawyer. A long-time member of the Likud party, he left Likud in 2006 to help form the Kadima party after Israel’s withdrawal of settlements from Gaza (see Gaza Disengagement). Olmert has served in both municipal and national governmental positions, including parliament member from 1973-1993, Mayor of Jerusalem from 1993-2003 and Prime Minister from 2006-2009. During his tenure as Prime Minister, he oversaw the 2006 Lebanon War, took part in the 2007 Annapolis Conference, and ordered the Israeli military offensive into Gaza at the end of 2008 (see Gaza War). Olmert stepped down as Kadima party leader in July 2008 due to corruption allegations and officially left his post as Prime Minister in February 2009. He has since been charged in several corruption cases. See “Profile: Ehud Olmert.” 30 August 2009. BBC. 27 June 2011. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/4135680.stm.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/olmert-ehud

Orient House

Served as the headquarters for the Palestinian Liberation Organization in East Jerusalem. During the Oslo Process, the Israeli government accused the Palestinian Authority of functioning out of the Orient House in an attempt to expand Palestinian institutions in Jerusalem. In August 2001, Israel closed the Orient House, seizing files and computers. See Smith, Charles D. Palestine and the Arab-Israeli Conflict, 5th ed. Boston: University of Arizona, 2004.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/orient-house

Orr Commission

An Israeli commission headed by Justice Theodor Orr that investigated the events surrounding the deaths of 13 Palestinian Arab citizens of Israel during the October demonstrations and riots of 2000 (see October 2000 Events). The commission found that Israeli police used excessive force in quelling the riots and demonstrated prejudice against the Palestinian minority. In addition, the commission accused the government of neglect and bias with regard to its treatment of the Palestinian Arab Israeli population; however, it did not name individuals responsible for the killings. See “Official Commission of Inquiry into the October 2000 events.” March 2004. Adalah. 22 August 2011. http://www.adalah.org/eng/commission.php.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/orr-commission

Orthodox Judaism

One of four major denominations/movements of religious Judaism: Orthodox, Conservative, Reform and Reconstructionist. Orthodox Jews adhere to a relatively strict interpretation and application of Jewish religious law, both written and oral. See “Orthodox Judaism.” Jewish Virtual Library. 18 July 2011. http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Judaism/Orthodox.html.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/orthodox-judaism

Oslo Process

This process was unveiled with the signing of the Declaration of Principles (DOP) by Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) Chairman Yasser Arafat and Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin on the White House lawn on September 13, 1993. It was preceded by a series of backchannel meetings begun by academics under the aegis of the Norwegian government, which, over a period of months, became official though still secret. Israel recognized the PLO as the sole legitimate representative body of the Palestinian people and the PLO recognized Israel’s right to exist in peace and security. The DOP called for a permanent settlement to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict based on United Nation Resolutions 242 and 338. It also led to the creation of the Palestinian Authority (PA) as part of the 1995 Oslo Interim Agreement. Yasser Arafat became President of the PA. A series of agreements between the Israeli government and the PA followed, known collectively as the Oslo Agreements. The Oslo Process was set back with the assassination of Rabin in November 1995, and by a wave of Palestinian suicide bombings as well as a major Israeli attack on Lebanon in 1996. The election of Benjamin Netanyahu, who had opposed the Oslo Agreements, as Israeli Prime Minister in May 1996 made continuing the Process more difficult. After the failure of the Camp David (II) Summit in 2000 and the subsequent outbreak of the Second Intifada, the Oslo Process ended. In retrospect, majorities of both sides tend to see the Process as a mistake, with each side convinced the other had no real intention of making peace. See Smith, Charles D. Palestine and the Arab-Israeli Conflict, 5th ed. Boston: University of Arizona, 2004; and “The Oslo Declaration of Principles.” 13 September 1993. MidEast Web. 22 August 2011. http://www.mideastweb.org/meoslodop.htm.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/oslo-process

Ottoman Empire

This powerful, multi-ethnic Islamic empire ruled and united most of the Middle East from the 15th century until its collapse in 1918 at the end of World War I. The Empire was based in Anatolia (modern-day Turkey) and was governed by the Sultan in Istanbul. Its disintegration saw the formation of numerous quasi-independent states throughout the Arab world under French and British mandates, drawing what are still most of today’s national boundaries in the region. For details on Palestine under Ottoman rule, see Farsoun, Samih K. and Naseer H. Aruri. Palestine and the Palestinians, 2nd ed. Boulder: Westview Press, 2006.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/ottoman-empire

Outpost

Often a small group of mobile homes near established Jewish Israeli settlements, outposts refers to settlements that Jewish Israelis set up in the Occupied Palestinian Territories without permits issued from the proper Israeli authorities. Though Israel considers these outposts to be illegal, a 2005 Israeli governmental report uncovered that most of the then 100+ outposts had received financial and material support from various Israeli ministries. The number of outposts deemed to be on private Palestinian land is currently disputed, with the Israeli government declaring three and the Israeli human rights organization Peace Now asserting 70. The Israeli government is also considering legalizing outposts they deem to be located on Israeli state land. For the 2005 Israeli government report on settlement outposts and Israeli government support, see “Summary of the Opinion Concerning Unauthorized Outposts - Talya Sason, Adv.” 10 March 2005. Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 23 June 2011. http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/Government/Law/Legal+Issues+and+Rulings/Summar.... For a criticism of the Israeli government’s actions and reporting surrounding outposts, see Ofran, Hagit and Lara Friedman. “At least 70 outposts are located on private Palestinian land.” 2 March 2011. Peace Now. 23 June 2011. http://peacenow.org.il/eng/content/least-70-outposts-are-located-private.... For an announcement by the Israeli government to evacuate three outposts, see Levison, Chaim and Barak Ravid. “Israel vows to raze all illegal outposts built on private Palestinian land.” Haaretz. 3 March 2011. http://www.haaretz.com/print-edition/news/israel-vows-to-raze-all-illega....  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/outpost

Palestine

A historical territorial entity that comprises much of present-day Israel and the West Bank, East Jerusalem and Gaza. Palestine was among the several former Ottoman Empire territories that the League of Nations placed under the administration of Great Britain after World War I. In 1947, United Nations General Assembly Resolution 181 proposed the partitioning of Palestine into two independent states: one Palestinian Arab and the other Jewish. This proposal was not realized as Arab leaders, and other nations who rejected the plan, regarded it as invalid. The State of Israel declared independence in 1948 on part of Palestine. The war that followed led to most of Palestine’s territory being annexed by Israel and other parts falling under Egyptian and Jordanian control (see War of 1948). While the state of Palestine does not exist today, the term is used by many to refer alternatively to a future Palestinian state in the West Bank, East Jerusalem and Gaza, or in the entire territory of British mandate Palestine. See Cleveland, William L. A History of the Modern Middle East. 2nd ed. Boulder: Westview Press, 2000; Farsoun, Samih K. and Naseer H. Aruri. Palestine and the Palestinians, 2nd ed. Boulder: Westview Press, 2006; and Pappe, Ilan A History of Modern Palestine: One Land, Two Peoples. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2004.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/palestine

Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO)

Founded in 1964, the PLO has long been the umbrella group for numerous Palestinian political, professional and trade groups, all dedicated to the establishment of an independent Palestinian state. In 1969, Yasser Arafat, representing the Fatah movement, became chair of the organization, a position he held until his death in 2004. Some of the other groups within the PLO are the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP), the Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine (DFLP), and the Syrian-backed Saeqa. From the early 1970s through the early 1990s, the PLO operated politically and militarily from bases in Jordan, Lebanon, Syria and Tunisia. The PLO first gained international legitimacy when Arafat addressed the United Nations General Assembly in November 1974 and the organization was granted observer status to the United Nations. In 1993, the PLO received recognition from Israel as the representative of the Palestinian people and recognized Israel’s right to exist through signing on to the Oslo Process; it has since seen its leadership absorbed into the Palestinian Authority. Some factions of the PLO still do not recognize Israel’s right to exist. Per a unity agreement between Palestinian political parties in 2011, Hamas may join the PLO. See Bickerton, Ian J and Carla L. Klausner. A History of the Arab-Israeli Conflict, 5th ed. New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2007; Hamid, Rashid. “What is the PLO?” Journal of Palestine Studies Vol. 4, No. 4. (Summer 1975), pp. 90-109; and “Palestine Liberation Organization.” Permanent Observer Mission of Palestine to the United Nations. 22 August 2011. http://www.un.int/palestine/theplo.shtml.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/palestine-liberation-organization-plo

Palestinian

The term Palestinian refers to those tracing heritage to historic Palestine, which comprises modern-day Israel, the West Bank, Gaza and East Jerusalem. In 2007, the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) reported an estimated 3.76 million Palestinians living in East Jerusalem, the West Bank and Gaza, with the Israeli CBS reporting approximately 1.52 million Palestinians Arab citizens of Israel in 2009. In addition to these populations, as of 2010 there were approximately 4.3 million Palestinian refugees living in Jordan, Syria and Lebanon. There is also a sizable Palestinian Diaspora. See also Palestinian Arab Citizens of Israel and Palestinian Refugees. See Farsoun, Samih K. and Naseer H. Aruri. Palestine and the Palestinians, 2nd ed. Boulder: Westview Press, 2006. For a personal account, see Turki, Fawaz. The Disinherited: Journal of a Palestinian Exile. New York: Monthly Review Press, 1972.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/palestinian

Palestinian Arab Citizens of Israel

Also known as Palestinian citizens of Israel, Palestinian Israelis, 1948 Palestinians, or Arab Israelis. Refers to those Palestinians and their descendants who remained in the area that became the State of Israel in 1948. Most Bedouins and some Druze in Israel also consider themselves to be Palestinian Arab Israelis. Though granted Israeli citizenship, until 1966, most Palestinian Arab citizens of Israel were subjected to military rule, which restricted their movement and other civil rights. The tension in Israel between its “Jewish” and “democratic” nature has historically meant that many Palestinian Arab minority rights have been neglected. According to Adalah, The Legal Center for Arab Minority Rights in Israel, since 1967, “The state [has] practiced systematic and institutionalized discrimination in all areas, such as land dispossession and allocation, education, language, economics, culture, and political participation.” While their standing in Israel has improved since Israel’s independence, Palestinian Arab citizens of Israel experience periodic persecution, felt strongest during the October 2000 riots in which 13 Palestinian Arab Israelis were killed (see October 2000 events). In 2009, Palestinian Arab citizens of Israel numbered 1.52 million, approximately 18-19% of the Israeli population. They live within the State of Israel, participate in government and hold Israeli citizenship, but most do not serve in the military. See Lustick, Ian S. “Palestinian Citizens of Israel.” Philip Mattar, ed. Encyclopedia of the Palestinians. New York: Facts on File, 2005; and Bligh, Alexander, ed. The Israeli Palestinians: an Arab Minority in the Jewish State. London: Frank Cass, 2003. See also the websites of the organizations Adalah and Mossawa at http://www.adalah.org/eng/ and http://www.mossawacenter.org.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/palestinian-arab-citizens-israel

Palestinian Authority

Also known as the Palestinian National Authority (PNA). The Palestinian Authority (PA) was created to serve as the governing body in charge of Palestinian self-rule in the Occupied Palestinian Territories as part of the Oslo Process. While the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) signed on to the Oslo Process in 1993, it has since seen its leadership absorbed into the PA. As leader of the PLO, Yasser Arafat became the PA Chairman in 1994. The PA is the first governing body of the Palestinian people by Palestinians. Its authority was significantly curtailed by the content of the agreements signed with Israel during the Oslo Process, giving it full jurisdiction over only a small proportion of the West Bank (see Areas A, B, C). It consists of a legislative council and a President, including 24 ministries. The PA has observer status in the United Nations. After Hamas won a majority in the 2006 PA legislative elections, a unity government was formed that included Hamas and Fatah. In 2007, however, clashes between the two parties resulted in a Hamas takeover of the Gaza Strip and PA President Mahmud Abbas’s establishment of a new Fatah-dominated government in the West Bank (see Palestinian Civil War). After years of failed unity talks, Hamas and Fatah signed a unity agreement in April 2011, which called for the formation of an interim government and future PA elections. The results of this agreement are yet to be seen. See Parsons, Nigel. The Politics of the Palestinian Authority. New York: Routledge, 2005; Kimmerling, Baruch and Joel S. Migdal. The Palestinian People: a History. London: Harvard University Press, 2003; and “Palestinian National Authority.” Permanent Observer Mission of Palestine to the United Nations. 18 July 2011. http://www.un.int/wcm/content/site/palestine/pid/11544.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/palestinian-authority

Palestinian Civil War

Also known as the Hamas-Fatah conflict and as the Wakseh (Arabic for “self-inflicted ruin” or “humiliation”). This conflict between Hamas and Fatah began in January 2006 and continued in various forms through 2011. Tensions rose in November 2004 when the death of Palestine Liberation Organization Chairman Yasser Arafat left a political vacuum in the Occupied Palestinian Territories. Hamas’ success in the January 2005 Palestinian local elections and its dramatic rise to power in legislative elections in January 2006, challenged Fatah’s longtime dominance of the political scene. Members of the international community, including Israel and the United States, rejected the election results, implemented sanctions on the Hamas-led Palestinian Authority (PA), and armed Fatah. Fatah refused to join Hamas in a coalition. In February 2007, after a long political standoff and several violent clashes, Fatah and Hamas accepted the Saudi-brokered Mecca Accords and entered a short-lived unity government. It was dissolved in June 2007 when Hamas wrested control of the Gaza Strip, claiming it was foiling a Fatah and American coup against it, and PA President Mahmoud Abbas dismantled the unity government, calling for a state of emergency in the Fatah-dominated West Bank. Sporadic clashes between between the two parties continue, but have declined significantly since June 2007. Though an emergency Fatah-dominated government remains in control of the West Bank and Hamas continues to run its own government in the Gaza Strip, both parties signed a unity agreement in April 2011, the results of which have yet to be seen. See “Q&A: Gaza’s civil war.” The Guardian. 14 June 2007. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2007/jun/14/israelandthepalestinians.qanda; and “Palestinian rivals: Fatah & Hamas.” 17 June 2007. BBC. 30 June 2011. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/5016012.stm. For analysis of external factors contributing to the Palestinian Civil War, see Rose, David. “The Gaza Bombshell.” Vanity Fair. April 2008. http://www.vanityfair.com/politics/features/2008/04/gaza200804.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/palestinian-civil-war

Palestinian Declaration of Independence

In November 1988, the Palestinian National Council, the legislative body of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), met in Algeria to adopt a declaration of independence and proclaimed an independent State of Palestine in East Jerusalem, the West Bank and Gaza. The declaration, which did not mention Israel, led to on-again, off-again American talks with the PLO. To view the Declaration and a brief analysis of its content, see Isseroff, Ami. “Palestinian Declaration of Independence.” MidEast Web. 22 August 2011. http://www.mideastweb.org/plc1988.htm.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/palestinian-declaration-independence

Palestinian National Reconciliation Agreement

An agreement brokered by Egypt in April 2011 and officially signed by Fatah and Hamas on May 4, 2011. Since the Palestinian Civil War in 2007, Hamas had governed Gaza on its own with a Fatah-dominated Palestinian Authority (PA) governing the West Bank. Subsequent attempts at reconciling the two parties failed until after Egypt’s regime fell in February 2011 and Palestinian citizens in Gaza and the West Bank took to the streets calling for national unity in Spring 2011. The reconciliation agreement calls for: 1) the formation of an interim, technocrat government that will oversee both Gaza and the West Bank and prepare for legislative and presidential elections, 2) the conduct of such elections in May 2012, and 3) the eventual inclusion of Hamas into the Palestine Liberation Organization. The agreement was met with approval by the Arab League and across the Arab world. Israel denounced the agreement and withheld tax money it collects on behalf of the Palestinian Authority, stating that Fatah should not make an agreement with a terrorist entity. Quartet Representative Tony Blair accepted the agreement on the condition that the future Palestinian government denounce violence and recognize Israel’s right to exist. The United States criticized the agreement, stating that Hamas must first agree to the principles laid out by the Quartet, and the US Congress evaluated withholding US aid to the PA if Hamas became part of the government. The agreement has yet to be implemented. For text of the agreement in English, see: “Text Of The Agreement Between Fatah And Hamas.” 3 May 2011. Palestine Monitor. 26 October 2011. For various reactions to the agreement, see: “Palestine: Reactions to Fatah-Hamas Reconciliation Agreement.” 4 May 2011. POMED. 26 October 2011. For various Israeli and Palestinian views on the agreement, see “Ramifications of the Palestinian reconciliation agreement.” 2 May 2011. Bitterlemons.org. 26 May 2011.

Palestinian People's Party

A Palestinian political party with communist roots; a member of the Palestinian Liberation Organization. Founded in 1982 as the Palestinian Communist Party, although it draws on the work and ideology of previous communist factions dating to the mid-1920s. In 1991, after the Soviet Union fell, the party re-evaluated its Leninist past and changed its name to the Palestinian People’s Party (PPP). The party was supportive yet critical of the Oslo Accords. Long-time member and then General-Secretary Mustafa Barghouti left the PPP in 2002 to form the Palestinian National Initiative. See “Palestinian Community Party.” Philip Mattar, ed. Encyclopedia of the Palestinians. New York: Facts on File, 2005.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/palestinian-peoples-party

Palestinian Prisoners

Refers to Palestinian prisoners from the Occupied Palestinian Territories who are tried by Israel. These prisoners are tried by Israeli military courts based in the Territories, while most detention centers are located within Israel’s 1948 borders. While Israel maintains that those in detention either pose a threat to Israel’s security or have committed a crime against Israel’s population, Palestinian rights groups and others claim that a majority of Palestinian prisoners are political prisoners (including those who organize nonviolent demonstrations), or held for negligible acts such as stone-throwing. Prisoner swaps are common in negotiations between Israel and the Palestinian Authority. During the Second Intifada (2000 to about 2008), Israel arrested and detained over 50,000 Palestinians. In August 2011, 5,200 Palestinians were held in Israeli detention centers, including 176 children. Also included in that number are 272 Palestinians held in administrative detention without charge or trial. These numbers were much higher during the Second Intifada. For statistics and information regarding Israeli law and detention procedures for Palestinian prisoners, see “Detainees and Prisoners.” B’Tselem. 3 October 2011. http://www.btselem.org/english/statistics/Detainees_and_Prisoners.asp. For information on Israel’s arrests and detentions of Palestinian organizers of nonviolent demonstrations against the Separation Barrier, see “Joint NGO Submission on Israeli Suppression of Palestinian Human Rights Activism against the Wall.” 4 February 2010. Addameer Prisoners’ Support and Human Rights Association, The Palestinian Grassroots Anti-Apartheid Wall Campaign, and the National Lawyers Guild. 6 July 2011. http://addameer.info/wp-content/images/joint-submission-israeli-suppression-of-palestinian-human-rights-activists.pdf.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/palestinian-prisoners

Palestinian Refugees

Refers to Palestinians who lost their homes and lands as a result of the creation of the State of Israel, the War of 1948 as well as the War of 1967. Not including descendants, the recorded number of Palestinian refugees depends on the source: 520,000 according to Israeli sources, 726,000 according to United Nations (UN) sources and over 800,000 according to Arab sources. Including descendants, Palestinian refugees registered with the UN in 2010 numbered more than 4.3 million, with many of these refugees living in UN-administered refugee camps in Gaza, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria and the West Bank. The rights of and future solutions for Palestinian refugees have been a sticking point in negotiations between Israel and the Palestinian Authority, with Israel stating original refugees must relinquish claims to lands they resided in pre-1948 and 1967 and the Palestinians claiming some right of return for these refugees and/or formal acknowledgement from Israel that the Israeli state pushed these Palestinians off of their lands. UN Resolution 194 stipulated that refugees be allowed to return to their homes and lands and that the responsible governments should compensate all refugees for any destroyed property or for properties the refugees do not choose to return to; for the most part, Israel has ignored this resolution. See also Al-Nakba and Right of Return. See “The Palestinian Refugees.” MidEast Web for Coexistence. 11 July 2011. http://www.mideastweb.org/refugees1.htm; and Asser, Martin. “Obstacles to Arab-Israeli peace: Palestinian refugees.” BBC. 2 September 2010. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-11104284http://www.justvision.org/glossary/palestinian-refugees

Palestinian Vision

“Ru’ya” in Arabic. A Palestinian nonprofit youth organization with the goal of empowering Palestinian youth, particularly in Jerusalem, and promoting their belonging and national identity as Palestinians. Palestinian Vision focuses on awareness, mentoring and capacity building programs. See the organization’s website at http://www.palvision.ps/.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/palestinian-vision

Palmach

(A Hebrew acronym for “Plugot Maḥatz” or “strike force”) An operational force formed by the Haganah (a Jewish paramilitary group and the precursor to the Israeli army) with British assistance in 1941. The Jews of the Palmach viewed their force as protection against Arab attacks and the Nazis, while the British viewed it as a guerilla force to be used against the Germans should they occupy British mandate Palestine. Later, the organization went underground and practiced guerilla combat against the British. In the War of 1948, the Palmach formed the backbone of the Jewish forces, with its three brigades and ancillary intelligence, air and naval forces. As the Palmach was politically affiliated with the Israeli groups Ahdut Haavoda and MAPAM, Israel’s first Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion insisted on its integration into the Israeli army in 1948. Some of the commanders of the Palmach, such as Yigal Alon, Moshe Dayan and Yitzhak Rabin, became prominent military and political leaders. See Morris, Benny. Righteous Victims: A History of the Zionist-Arab Conflict, 1881-2001. New York: Vintage Books, 2001; and Bickerton, Ian J and Carla L. Klausner. A History of the Arab-Israeli Conflict, 5th ed. New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2007.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/palmach

Parents Circle-Bereaved Families Forum

Founded in 1995 as a forum to bring together Israeli and Palestinian families who have lost immediate family members as a result of the conflict. Today, the nonprofit organization offers numerous reconciliation programs between Palestinians and Israelis. See the forum’s website at http://www.theparentscircle.com/.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/parents-circle-bereaved-families-forum

Peace Now

Founded in 1978, this Israeli nonprofit organization describes itself as the oldest and largest extra-parliamentary movement in Israel. It has often engaged in large public demonstrations, the most notable one being in 1982, when 400,000 Israelis gathered to call for a commission of inquiry into Israel’s involvement in the deaths at the Sabra and Shatila Palestinian refugee camps in Lebanon. Peace Now is committed to and advocates a two-state solution. The organization currently engages in monitoring the growth of Jewish Israeli settlements in the Occupied Palestinian Territories and in raising public awareness about the negative impacts of Israel’s military occupation. See the organization’s website at http://peacenow.org.il/eng/http://www.justvision.org/glossary/peace-now

Peace Research Institute in the Middle East (PRIME)

A Palestinian nonprofit research organization established in 1998 by Palestinian and Israeli researchers with the help of the Peace Research Institute in Frankfurt, Germany. PRIME's purpose is to pursue mutual coexistence and peacebuilding through joint research and outreach activities. See the organization’s website at http://vispo.com/PRIME/.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/prime

Peki'in

A town in northern Israel, located in the Galilee region. Est. population in 2009: 5,200, predominantly Druze.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/pekiin

Peres, Shimon

(1923- ) A Jewish Israeli political figure of Polish origin. Peres immigrated to Palestine in 1932. He was a member of the Jewish paramilitary group Haganah (the precursor to the Israeli army) and, after the establishment of Israel in 1948, held several positions in the Ministry of Defense. Throughout his political career, he has been a member of four political parties: Rafi, Alignment, Labor and Kadima. He was first elected to the Israeli parliament in 1959 and has almost continually held various governmental positions, including Prime Minister from 1984-1986 and 1995-1996 and Foreign Minister from 1986-1988, 1992-1995 and 2001-2002. Along with Palestine Liberation Organization Chairman Yasser Arafat and Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin, Peres received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1994 for his role in the signing of the Oslo Accords. In 1996, he established the Peres Center for Peace to further the peace process through economic and social cooperation with the Palestinians. In 2005, Peres left the Labor party in support of Kadima, the new political party formed by Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon. In June 2007, Peres was elected the ninth President of the State of Israel. See "President Shimon Peres" The President of the State of Israel. 3 October 2011. http://www.knesset.gov.il/president/eng/main_eng.htm.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/peres-shimon

Permits

There are different kinds of permits used by Israel in regards to the Occupied Palestinian Territories. Travel permits are primarily required for Palestinians living in the West Bank and Gaza who must obtain permits from Israeli authorities to enter Israel, including East Jerusalem. Israeli civilians wanting to enter Areas A in the West Bank (Areas A, B, C) are also required to obtain Israeli-issued permits. Due to Israel’s Separation Barrier and Jewish Israeli settlements, some Palestinians must obtain permits from the Israeli military to access their land and even to live in their homes. All types of permits, including building permits for Palestinians living in Area C and East Jerusalem, can be difficult to obtain, and there are instances of Palestinians being barred from access to their land to the point of losing their crops. Israel states the permits are necessary for maintaining security and order. For an explanation of the different kinds of permits Palestinians may need and the effects on Palestinians, see “The Permit Maze: Palestinians need permits to move, to live, for everything.” 3 November 2003. BADIL Resource Center. 17 June 2011. http://www.badil.org/es/recursos-en-espanol/56-press-releases-2003/770-p... For coverage of the internal Israeli debate regarding permits for Palestinians, see Friedman, Ron. “Security fence permits for Palestinians petition rejected.” Jerusalem Post. 4 June 2011. http://www.jpost.com/NationalNews/Article.aspx?id=215320&R=R2.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/permits

Physicians for Human Rights

Founded in 1986, this US-based nonprofit organization aims to prevent and highlight severe human rights violations throughout the world through the expertise of medicine and science. The organization conducts medical and scientific investigations, working with both health professionals and human rights experts. See the organization’s website at http://physiciansforhumanrights.org.

Pines-Paz, Ophir

(1961- ) A Jewish Israeli political figure. Prior to entering politics, Pines-Paz worked for the Jewish Agency from 1984-1993, overseeing the absorption of Jewish immigrants from Ethiopia and Russia. As a member of the Labor party, Pines-Paz was first elected to the Israeli parliament in 1996. He served as chairman of the One Israel political faction from 1999-2001 and then as Labor’s General Secretary from 2001-2003. Re-elected to the parliament in 2003, he served as Minister of the Interior from 2005-2006 and Minister of Science, Culture and Sport in 2006, resigning from that position in protest of the Yisrael Beiteinu party becoming part of the Labor coalition. Pines-Paz resigned from politics altogether in 2010. See “Ophir Pines-Paz.” Harvard University Institute of Politics. 3 October 2011. http://www.iop.harvard.edu/Programs/Fellows-Study-Groups/Former-Fellows/Ophir_Pines-Pazhttp://www.justvision.org/glossary/pines-paz-ophir

Popular Committee

Formed some time after 1982 in the Occupied Palestinian Territories, popular committees filled the institutional and organizational void as the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) was in exile. Committees were responsible for basic services ranging from education to garbage collection as well as food distribution during Israeli-imposed curfews and sieges. They required a great deal of popular mobilization, and were instrumental in the First Intifada. Popular committees continue to function today in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip and, particularly in the West Bank, have united under several coalitions in order to organize grassroots resistance against Israel’s occupation. The most prominent coalitions include the Grassroots Palestinian Anti-Apartheid Wall Campaign founded in 2002 and the Popular Struggle Coordination Committee established in 2009. For information about the advent of popular committees during the First Intifada, see King, Mary Elizabeth. A Quiet Revolution: The First Palestinian Intifada and Nonviolent Resistance. New York: Nation Books, 2007; and Farsoun, Samih K. and Naseer H. Aruri. Palestine and the Palestinians, 2nd ed. Boulder: Westview Press, 2006. See also the Popular Struggle Coordination Committee’s website at http://www.popularstruggle.org and the Grassroots Palestinian Anti-Apartheid Wall Campaign’s website at http://www.stopthewall.orghttp://www.justvision.org/glossary/popular-committee

Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP)

A Palestinian political party. Founded in the late 1960s by George Habash, this party combines Arab nationalist and Marxist-Leninist ideologies. The PFLP and its offshoot, the Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine, advocate the creation of a secular democratic Palestine as a precursor to a broader revolution within the Arab world. PFLP became the second largest faction within the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) after joining in 1970, but withdrew its membership from 1993-1999 due to the Oslo Process between the PLO and Israel. The PFLP has used both political and militant means, notably hijackings and political assassinations, to advance its aims. In 2010, the PFLP called for the PLO to end its negotiations with Israel as it believed the negotiations would further divide Fatah and Hamas and that only a one-state solution was possible. See Kimmerling, Baruch and Joel S. Migdal. The Palestinian People: a History. London: Harvard University Press, 2003; and “Palestinian Organizations.” MidEast Web. 22 August 2011. http://www.mideastweb.org/palestianparties.htm#Popular%20Front%20for%20the%20Liberation%20of%20Palestinehttp://www.justvision.org/glossary/popular-front-liberation-palestine-pflp

Popular Struggle Coordination Committee

This non-partisan committee was formed by activists in popular committees from all over the Occupied Palestinian Territories in order to facilitate communication between the different committees that organize unarmed resistance against Israel’s Separation Barrier, Israel’s confiscation of Palestinian land and other aspects of Israel’s military occupation. See also Popular Committee. See the committee’s website at http://www.popularstruggle.org/content/about.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/popular-struggle-coordination-committee

Qalandia

A Palestinian town and refugee camp in the northern portion of the Jerusalem municipal boundaries, located 5 km south of the Palestinian city of Ramallah and 11 km north of Jerusalem. Est. population in 2007: town - 1,179; camp - 8,831. A large Israeli military checkpoint by the same name is located just south of the camp; only Palestinians with Israeli-issued permits and Jerusalem IDs can pass through the checkpoint to the Jerusalem side. The town is affected by the Israeli Separation Barrier.

Qalqilia

A Palestinian city in the northern West Bank, located along the Green Line. The city is encircled by Israel’s Separation Barrier. Est. population in 2007: 41,793.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/qalqilia

Qassam Rockets

Free-flight artillery rockets lacking any guidance system. In the context of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, they are produced primarily by Hamas and other groups in the Gaza Strip. About 6,332 Qassam rockets have been launched into Israel from Gaza since 2005, landing frequently in the southern city of Sderot. The rockets have a maximum 10-15 km range, and have caused property damage as well as occasional infrastructure damage. Israeli defense specialists consider the Qassam rocket to be more of a psychological threat than a physical threat. Between June 2004 and August 2011, 19 Israelis and two foreign nationals were killed by rocket and mortar attacks on Israeli towns or cities along Gaza’s border. See “Rocket and mortar fire into Israel.” B’Tselem. 3 October 2011. http://www.btselem.org/israeli_civilians/qassam_missiles; and “Gaza’s Rocket Threat to Israel.” BBC. 21 January 2008. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/3702088.stm.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/qassam-rockets

Quartet

Also known as the Madrid Quartet and the Middle East Quartet. Made up of the United States, European Union, United Nations and Russia. Their involvement in the Middle East peace process began following a meeting in Madrid, Spain in April 2002. Representatives of each Quartet member met to discuss concerns over the Israeli-Palestinian conflict and issue a joint-statement calling for a cease-fire. According to the April 10, 2002 statement, the Quartet “agreed on the need to keep the situation in the Middle East under review...at the principal’s level through regular consultations” while maintaining special envoys on the ground “to assist the parties in reaching an end to confrontation and resumption of political negotiations.” See “Remarks…” 10 April 2002. UNISPAL. 31 October 2011. http://unispal.un.org/UNISPAL.NSF/0/4808D2E68A33B35385256B970062DEAF.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/quartet

Qurei, Ahmed

(1937- ) Also known as Abu Ala'. A Palestinian political figure. A long-time member of Fatah and numerous Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) bodies, he formerly served as the speaker of the Palestinian Legislative Council from 1996-2003 and was one of the leading Palestinian negotiators in the secret talks that led to the signing of the Declaration of Principles in 1993. Qurei has also held various positions in the Palestinian Authority, including Minister of Economy and Trade, Minister of Industry and Prime Minister from September 2003-February 2006. He currently serves as head of the PLO Department for Jerusalem Affairs and is a member of the PLO Executive Committee. See Parsons, Nigel. The Politics of the Palestinian Authority: From Oslo to al-Aqsa. New York & London: Routledge, 2005; and “Biography - Ahmed Qurei.” MidEast Web. 8 August 2011. http://www.mideastweb.org/bio-qurei.htm.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/qurei-ahmed

Rabbis for Human Rights

An Israeli nonprofit organization established in 1988 to give voice to the Zionist and the Jewish religious tradition of human rights, and to hold Israel accountable for its human rights abuses within Israel and the Occupied Palestinian Territories. Its members, all Israeli citizens, include rabbis from various forms of Judaism as well as educators and other supportive individuals. Rabbis for Human Rights is well known for organizing Israelis and internationals to help with olive harvests in Palestinian villages across the West Bank. See the organization’s website at http://rhr.org.il/eng/.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/rabbis-human-rights

Rabin, Yitzhak

(1922–1995) A Jewish Israeli political and military figure. Prior to Israel’s establishment in 1948, he served in the Palmach unit of the Jewish paramilitary group Haganah. Following many years in the military, Rabin was appointed Chief of Staff of the Israeli army in 1964 and oversaw Israeli military action during the War of 1967. A member of the Labor party, he served as Israeli Ambassador to the United States from 1968-1973. He then went on to become the first Israeli Prime Minster born in Israel, serving from 1974-1977 and a second term from 1992-1995. Rabin was also Defense Minister from 1984–1990 during the First Intifada, which he sought to crush militarily. His strategy during that period was characterized by the order for “force, might and beatings.” In 1993, in his capacity as Prime Minister, Rabin took steps toward accepting a future Palestinian state by launching the Oslo Process with the Palestine Liberation Organization Chairman Yasser Arafat. The two shared the 1994 Nobel Peace Prize along with Shimon Peres. He later helped broker Israel’s 1994 peace treaty with Jordan (see Israeli-Jordanian Peace Treaty). Rabin was assassinated on November 4, 1995 by a Jewish extremist. See Gresh, Alain and Dominique Vidal. The New A-Z of the Middle East. New York: IB Tauris, 2004; and “Yitzhak Rabin.” Encyclopedia Britannica Online. 3 October 2011. http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9062358/Yitzhak-Rabin.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/rabin-yitzhak

Rafah

A Palestinian city in the southern part of the Gaza Strip, located near the Egyptian border. There is also an adjacent Palestinian refugee camp by the same name. Est. population in 2007, including the refugee camp: 25,683.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/rafah

Ramallah

A Palestinian city in the central West Bank, located about 16 km north of Jerusalem. Est. population in 2007: 27,460. Ramallah is hthe eadquarters of the Palestinian Authority as well as home to many international nonprofits and regional companies.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/ramallah

Ramallah Lynching

On October 12, 2002, during the Second Intifada, two Israeli army reservists were captured in the Palestinian city of Ramallah and hung by a civilian mob in a Palestinian police station. Pictures and film of the event had a strong effect on convincing Israelis that Palestinians had no desire to stem the violence and live in peace with Israel. See Asser, Martin. “Lynch mob’s brutal attack.” 13 October 2000. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/969778.stm.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/ramallah-lynching

Ramle

A city in central Israel, located southeast of the city of Tel Aviv. Est. population in 2009: 65,700, including Jewish and Palestinian Arab citizens of Israel.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/ramle

Ramot

A Jewish Israeli settlement in the Jerusalem municipa boundaries, in an area called East Jerusalem. Est. population in 2008: 23,904. See Jerusalem.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/ramot

Ras Tira

A Palestinian village in the northern West Bank, located southeast of the city of Qalqilia. Est. population in 2007: 394. Ras Tira, along with other Palestinian villages in the area, is almost completely surrounded by the Israeli Separation Barrier. In 2009, this village and others in the area held protests against Israel’s confiscation of their land.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/ras-tira

Ra’anana

A city in central Israel, located northeast of the city of Tel Aviv. Est. population in 2009: 68,300, predominantly Jewish Israelis.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/ra’anana

Realistic Religious Zionism

A Jewish Israeli movement founded in 2003 by a group of young religious Jewish men and women, committed to changing the current image and direction of religious Zionism. The organization has three main goals: ending Israeli control of the Palestinian territories, reforming religious Zionism’s stance towards women in religious law, and addressing the tension between religious law, modernity and social justice. See the movement’s website at http://tzionut.org/en/.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/realistic-religious-zionism

Reform Judaism

One of four major denominations of religious Judaism: Orthodox, Conservative, Reform and Reconstructionist. Reform Judaism began in Germany in the early nineteenth-century and is the largest movement in America with over 1.5 million practitioners. Like Conservative Judaism, Reform Judaism has a minority status in Israel. For more information, see http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Judaism/The_Origins_of_Refor....  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/reform-judaism

Refusenik

A term first applied to Jews who the Soviet Union barred from emigrating to Israel. In Israel today, “refusenik” applies to conscientious objectors - Israeli soldiers or reservists who refuse to serve in the Occupied Palestinian Territories or in the Israeli army altogether. For an Israeli to legally avoid military service based on the grounds of conscience or refusal, one must be granted Conscientious Objector (CO) status, which is difficult to obtain. The Refusenik movement gained popularity during the Second Intifada, after a group of Israeli reserve officers and combat soldiers drafted the Combatant's Letter in January 2002, outlining their justification for conscientious objection based on Israel’s “illegal and thus immoral” occupation of the Palestinian Territories. Since then, 627 Israelis have signed onto the letter and hundreds of Israelis have refused service in the Occupied Palestinian Territories. Israel has court martialed hundreds for this decision and many refuseniks serve up to 35 days in jail. See also Shministim. See the Refusenik’s website at http://www.seruv.org.il/english/.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/refusenik

Rehovot

A city in central Israel, located 20 km south of the city of Tel Aviv. Est. population in 2009: 109,100, predominantly Jewish Israelis.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/rehovot

Remembrance Day

(“Yom Hazikaron” in Hebrew) An Israeli national holiday that takes place on the 4th day of the Jewish month of Iyar, the day before Israeli Independence Day. The holiday commemorates all those who died as part of Jewish forces fighting to establish the State of Israel in 1948, as well as Israelis who have died in the armed forces since then. See “Remembrance Day-Independence Day - Selected Readings.” 2 May 2000. Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 7 December 2011. http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/History/Modern%20History/Israel%20at%2050/Reme....

Resolution 181/Partition Plan

United Nations (UN) General Assembly Resolution 181, also known as the 1947 UN Partition Plan, divided the territory of British mandate Palestine into a Jewish and an Arab state, with Jerusalem as an internationalized city. It was the first instance of overt international support for a Jewish state in Palestine, although previous British documents and declarations paved the way for international recognition. The plan passed on November 29, 1947 with 33 in favor, 13 against, 10 abstentions and one absent, made possible by support of both the United States and the Soviet Union, and their cold war allies. Zionist leaders actively lobbied for the plan, which they stood to gain from as the minority population striving to build a Jewish nation-state, while the Arab League and Palestinian leaders rejected it, considering the establishment of a Jewish State to be illegitimate and an injustice to the majority Arab population. After Israel’s success in the ensuing war (see War of 1948), a rump Palestinian government attempted to accept the resolution’s boundaries but Israel ignored it. See Herzog, Chaim. Arab-Israeli Wars. New York: Vintage Books, 2005; and Bickerton, Ian J and Carla L. Klausner. A History of the Arab-Israeli Conflict, 5th ed. New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2007. For text and analysis, see “United Nations General Assembly Resolution 181.” MidEast Web. 24 August 2011. http://www.mideastweb.org/181.htm.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/resolution-181partition-plan

Resolution 194

United Nations (UN) General Assembly Resolution 194 was adopted on December 11, 1948 in order to deal with the rapidly growing issue of Palestinian Arab refugees. The resolution states “that the refugees wishing to return to their homes and live at peace with their neighbors should be permitted to do so at the earliest practicable date, and that compensation should be paid for the property of those choosing not to return and for loss of or damage to property which, under principles of international law or in equity, should be made good by the Governments or authorities responsible.” Israel rejected the resolution from the outset. It is considered the legal basis for the Palestinian claim for the “Right of Return.” For an introduction to and text of UN Resolution 194, see “MidEast Web Historical Documents: UNGA 194.” MidEast Web. 24 August 2011. http://www.mideastweb.org/194.htm.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/resolution-194

Resolution 242

United Nations (UN) Security Council Resolution 242, passed on November 22, 1967, calls for both the withdrawal of the Israeli armed forces from territories occupied in the War of 1967, and respect for the sovereignty, territorial integrity, security and right to live in peace for all countries in the area (i.e. Arab states’ recognition of Israel’s right to exist). The text was made deliberately ambiguous in order to appease demands from conflicting parties within the UN. As such, differing interpretations of the text prevail, with disagreement on whether Resolution 242 calls for full Israeli withdrawal, or allows for minor or even considerable border adjustments. Despite these differences, the resolution has been the cornerstone of “land for peace” initiatives since 1967. For an introduction to and text of UN Resolution 242, see “MidEast Web Historical Documents: UNSC 242.” MidEast Web. 24 August 2011. http://www.mideastweb.org/242.htm.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/resolution-242

Resolution 338

United Nations (UN) Security Council Resolution 338, passed on October 22, 1973, calls for an immediate cease-fire and an end to all hostilities between Egypt, Syria and Israel, following the War of 1973. Resolution 338 also reaffirms the importance of UN Security Council Resolution 242, and calls for its implementation. For an introduction to and text of the resolution, see “MidEast Web Historical Documents: UNSC 338.” MidEast Web. 24 August 2011. http://www.mideastweb.org/242.htm.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/resolution-338

Revisionist Zionism

The two main principles of Revisionist Zionism, established by Ze’ev Jabotinksy in 1925 as a more assertive and non-socialist Zionist approach, were the territorial integrity of a Jewish homeland over all of British mandate Palestine and the immediate declaration of the Jewish right to such political sovereignty. The Israeli Likud party grew out of the Revisionist trend in Zionism. See “Revisionist Zionism.” Israel: A Country Study. 1988. Library of Congress. 24 August 2011. http://countrystudies.us/israel/12.htm.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/revisionist-zionism

Right of Return

Article 13 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights states that: “Everyone has the right to freedom of movement and residence within the borders of each State. Everyone has the right to leave any country, including his own, and to return to his country.” Within the context of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, the Right of Return has two controversial connotations: 1) For the descendants of the 700,000-800,000 Palestinians who became refugees during the period of the creation of the State of Israel in 1948 as well as for the Palestinian refugees from the War in 1967, the Right of Return refers to their right to return to their pre-1948 and/or pre-1967 homes and lands and to receive compensation if they freely choose not to return. United Nations General Assembly Resolution 194 affirms this right, but it has yet to be implemented. The Right of Return for Palestinians remains one of the main issues to be resolved in a political solution between Israel and the Palestinians. 2) By contrast, under the Israeli Law of Return, the Right of Return refers to the right of all Jews worldwide to immigrate to Israel, receive Israeli citizenship, and live as full citizens. The Law of Return was meant to facilitate the ingathering of all Jews worldwide and to fulfill the Zionist aim of creating a refuge in the State of Israel for Jews fleeing persecution and anti-Semitism. For documents relating to the right of return for Palestinian refugees, see “Israel, Palestine and the Occupied Territories…” Global Policy Forum. 18 July 2011. http://www.globalpolicy.org/security/issues/israel-palestine/returnindex.... For the text of the Israeli Law of Return and its amendments, see “Law of Return: 5710-1950” Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 18 July 2011. http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/MFAArchive/1950_1959/Law+of+Return+5710-1950.htm.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/right-return

Rishon Le'Zion

A city in central Israel, located southeast of the city of Tel Aviv. Est. population in 2009:  226,500, predominantly Jewish Israelis.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/rishon-lezion

Road Map

Refers to a proposed peace process aimed at a two-state solution to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict by 2005: “A performance-based and goal-driven roadmap, with clear phases, time lines, target dates, and benchmarks aiming at progress through reciprocal steps by the two parties in the political, security, economic, humanitarian, and institution-building fields, under the auspices of the Quartet [the United States, European Union, United Nations, and Russia].” The document was signed by the Quartet on April 30, 2003. Many of its goals have yet to be achieved, although it is still considered by some as a working paradigm. See ”The roadmap: Full text.” BBC. 30 April 2003. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/2989783.stm.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/road-map

Rosh Haayin

A town in central Israel, located east of the city of Tel Aviv and near the Green Line. Est. population in 2009: 39,000.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/rosh-haayin

Russian Compound

Located in Jerusalem, the compound serves as Israeli police headquarters and as a detention center, known to Palestinians as “Moscobia.” Historically, the compound was a destination for Russian Christian pilgrims, established in the second half of the nineteenth-century. It also housed British police headquarters during the Mandate period after World War I.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/russian-compound

Sabra and Shatila

On September 16, 1982, during the brief Israeli occupation of the Lebanese capital of Beirut, the fighters of the Phalange (a Maronite Christian militia group in Lebanon temporarily allied with Israel) entered Sabra and Shatila to seek revenge for the assassination of their leader Bashir Gemayel. They were reported to have slaughtered and raped many hundreds of civilians over a period of three days. Shatila, a Palestinian refugee camp, and nearby Sabra, a neighborhood populated by Palestinian refugees in Lebanon, were guarded at the time by the Israeli army during Israel’s “Operation Peace for Galilee” (War of 1982). Following the assassination, however, Phalange fighters were allowed to enter the camps. The residents had been left defenseless, owing to the recent expulsion of the Syrian army and Palestine Liberation Organization fighters from the Beirut area. Estimates of Palestinian deaths start at 800. When news of the massacre became public, an estimated 400,000 Israelis demonstrated in Tel Aviv, demanding an official inquiry. The Israeli government established the Kahan Commission, which found several Israeli officials indirectly responsible for the killings. Ariel Sharon, the Israeli Defense Minister, was forced to resign as a result. See Hartley, Cathy, ed. A Survey of Arab-Israeli Relations, 2nd ed. London and New York: Europa Publications, 2004. Shahid, Leila “The Sabra and Shatila Massacres: Eye-Witness Reports” Journal of Palestine Studies, Vol. 32, No. 1 (Autumn, 2002), pp. 36-58; Herzog, Chaim. Arab-Israeli Wars. New York: Vintage Books, 2005; and “Flashback: Sabra and Shatila massacres.” 24 January 2002. BBC. 24 August 2011. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/1779713.stm.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/sabra-and-shatila

Sadaka Reut

Founded in 1983, this Israeli youth movement is the only joint Jewish-Palestinian Arab youth movement in Israel. The movement strives to “enrich and train youth as agents for social change and...to empower weakened communities from all sectors of society” through activities such as Arab-Jewish youth encounter and leadership groups, a youth center in the city of Jaffa and community empowerment work. See the movement’s website at http://www.reutsadaka.org.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/sadaka-reut

Sadat, Anwar

(1918-1981) Third President of Egypt from 1970-1981. Sadat succeeded Gamal Abdul Nasser upon Nasser’s death on September 28, 1970, and was elected president in a plebiscite on October 15. He guided the country through economic liberalization as well as gradual political liberalization, and increased ties with the West. In 1973, Sadat co-led an Egyptian and Syrian coalition, backed by Jordan and Iraq, and attacked Israel in an attempt to regain land lost in the War of 1967. Despite not regaining the Sinai Peninsula, some saw the war as a political victory for Sadat. By 1978, after years of negotiations with the Israelis, Sadat secured the return of the Sinai Peninsula in exchange for bilateral peace with Israel. This agreement, signed at Camp David and implemented in 1979, won Sadat the 1978 Nobel Peace Prize alongside Israeli Prime Minister Menachim Begin and Shimon Peres. On October 6, 1981, Sadat was assassinated in Cairo by Muslim extremists. See “Anwar el-Sadat.” Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. 21 July 2011. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/515786/Anwar-el-Sadat.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/sadat-anwar

Said, Edward

(1935-2003) A Palestinian intellectual figure in the Palestinian Diaspora/refugee community. Said was a prominent literary critic and professor of English and comparative literature at Columbia University in New York. A prolific author, he is known for his anti-colonialist and anti-Orientalist writings. He also commonly opposed Israeli human rights abuses against Palestinians, the Oslo Process and the governance of Palestinian Liberation Organization Chairman Yasser Arafat; as such, he became a leading figure in the local and international debate on the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. See Ruthven, Malise. “Obituary: Edward Said.” 26 September 2003. The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/news/2003/sep/26/guardianobituaries.highereduc...  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/said-edward

Sakhnin

A town in northern Israel, lovated east of the city Haifa and west of the Sea of Galilee. Est. population in 2009: 25,800, predominantly Palestinian Arab citizens of Israel.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/sakhnin

Salfit

A Palestinian town in the central West Bank, located between the cities of Ramallah and Nablus. Est. population in 2007: 8,796.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/salfit

Samaritans

(“Shomronim” in Hebrew) A distinct religious and ethnic community who believes in an ancient Israelite religion that is distinct from Judaism. While, like the Jews, the Samaritans consider the Five Books of Moses to be the word of God and their sacred scripture, they reject the remainder of Judaic scripture. The Samaritans consider Mt. Gerizim, located in the West Bank town of Nablus, their holiest site. In 2009, there were approximately 750 Samaritans in Israel and the West Bank—about half living on Mt. Gerizim and the other half in the town of Holon in central Israel, outside of the city of Tel Aviv. See The Samaritan’s Community In Israel website at http://www.shomronim.com/.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/samaritans

Sarid, Yossi

1940- ) A Jewish Israeli political and media figure. He served as a member of the Israeli parliament from 1974-2006, including the positions of Minister of Education and Minister of the Environment. From 1996-2003, he led the Meretz party, which supports the withdrawal of Jewish Israeli settlements from the West Bank. Due to Meretz’s decline in power, he retired from politics in 2006. Sarid now writes a weekly column for the Israeli newspaper Haaretz. See Khromchenko, Yulie. “Veteran Meretz MK Yossi Sarid says he will retire from politics.” Haaretz. 1 December 2005. http://www.haaretz.com/news/veteran-meretz-mk-yossi-sarid-says-he-will-retire-from-politics-1.175642.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/sarid-yossi

Sderot

A city in southern Israel, located near the Gaza Strip. Est. population in 2009: 19,400, predominantly Jewish Israelis. Sderot has come under rocket and mortar shell attacks from the Gaza Strip since 2001. See also Qassam Rockets.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/sderot

Sea of Galilee

Also known as Lake Tiberias and Lake Kinneret. The largest fresh water lake in Israel, located in the north of the country. It supplies about 30% of Israel's water.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/sea-galilee

Seam Zone

Palestinian areas on the Israeli-side of the Separation Barrier, located between the Green Line and the Barrier. As of 2011, approximately 6,500 Palestinians live in the Seam Zone; these Palestinians are required to apply for Israeli-issued residency permits in order to reside in their villages and/or access their farmland. In order to reach the rest of the West Bank, these Palestinians have to pass through checkpoints. When the Separation Barrier is completed, 25,000 West Bank Palestinians will live in the Seam Zone as well as the majority of Palestinians who have Jerusalem IDs. See “Seven years after the Advisory Opinion of the International Court of Justice on the Barrier.” July 2011. United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. 8 December 2011. http://www.ochaopt.org/documents/ocha_opt_barrier_update_july_2011_engli....

 

Second Intifada

(Arabic for “shaking off”) Also known as the Al-Aqsa (Aksa or ‘Aqsa) Intifada or the Armed Intifada. It refers to the Palestinian uprising against Israel’s occupation of the West Bank and Gaza, which began in September 2000, two months after the failure of the Camp David (II) Summit and immediately following Ariel Sharon’s provocative police-escorted visit to the politically and religiously charged Temple Mount/Haram al-Sharif in Jerusalem. The Second Intifada began with and was comprised of mass rallies, general strikes and various other unarmed and nonviolent strategies. However, it  was not centrally organized, faced strong Israeli military opposition, and later included suicide bombings and the use of arms by Palestinians. There is a debate about the character of the uprising and its leadership. Israel claims the overall character was mostly violent and that the Palestinian Authority ultimately supported the killings of Israeli soldiers and civilians. Others claim the Second Intifada had a prominent nonviolent character that was overlooked by mainstream media, with local Palestinian communities organizing predominantly nonviolent actions to combat the expropriation of Palestinian land by Jewish Israeli settlements and the Separation Barrier; Israeli and international civilians were also involved in many of these nonviolent actions. Though no clear change in the Occupied Palestinian Territories was visible, some see the Second Intifada as ending with Arafat’s death in November 2004, while others say it ended as late as 2008. For statistics of Palestinians and Israelis killed during the Second Intifada as well as a selected timeline of events, see “Intifada toll 2000-2005.” BBC. 8 February 2005. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/3694350.stm; and “Al-Aqsa Intifada timeline.” 29 Sept 2004. BBC News Online. 21 July 2011. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/3677206.stm. For various views of the intentions behind the Second Intifada, see Elmer, Jon. “Remembering the second intifada.” 31 October 2010. http://english.aljazeera.net/photo_galleries/middleeast/2010103132115872256.html; and “Four Years of Conflict: Israel’s war Against terrorism.” 3 October 2004. Israeli Ministry of Foreign. 21 July 2011. http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/Terrorism-+Obstacle+to+Peace/Terrorism+and+Islamic+Fundamentalism-/Four+Years+of+Conflict+3-Oct-2004.htm. For information about nonviolent resistance during the Second Intifada, see Hallward, Maia Carter and Julie M. Norman, eds. Nonviolent Resistance in the Second Intifada: Activism and Advocacy. New York: Palgrave Macmillian, 2011.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/second-intifada

Seeds of Peace

Founded in 1993, this nonprofit organization runs reconciliation and  coexistence programs for teenagers from conflict regions throughout the world, including for Israelis and Palestinians. In addition to its year-long programs in Israel and Palestine, Seeds of Peace runs a summer camp in the United States. See the organization’s website at http://www.seedsofpeace.org/.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/seeds-peace

Separation Barrier

Also termed the Wall, the Fence, Separation Wall, Security Fence, Annexation Wall and Apartheid Wall. A long structure of connected walls and fences that separates Israel from parts of the West Bank, running along the defacto border between Israel and the West Bank (see Green Line) and also within the West Bank. Critics and proponents disagree over the intent behind the structure, its route and its name. Israel began constructing the Separation Barrier in 2002, purportedly as a reaction to the violence of the Second Intifada. Still under construction today, Israel claims the Separation Barrier is needed for security, and cites decreases in suicide bombings within Israel since its construction as proof that the structure is both effective and necessary. Opponents claim the structure is an attempt to annex occupied Palestinian territory and unilaterally define future borders. They also maintain that the route of the Separation Barrier steals privately-owned, Palestinian land, and makes certain Palestinian villages and cities economically unviable. Israel has modified some of the routes in response to various Israeli High Court of Justice rulings as well as in response to international pressure and Palestinian-led demonstrations, but the route is still disputed. The debate over its legality intensified after the International Court of Justice issued an advisory opinion in 2004 declaring it a breach of international law. For a perspective against the Separation Barrier and its route, see Dolphin, Ray. The West Bank Wall: Unmaking Palestine. London: Pluto Press, 2006. For the Israeli government’s rationale for building the Separation Barrier, see “The Anti-Terrorist Fence.” Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 3 October 2011. http://securityfence.mfa.gov.il/mfm/web/main/missionhome.asp?MissionID=45187&. For updated statistics and analysis, see “Separation Barrier.” B’Tselem. 11 July 2011. http://www.btselem.org/separation_barrierhttp://www.justvision.org/glossary/separation-barrier

Settlement

A Jewish Israeli community existing outside the internationally accepted boundaries of the State of Israel. Those ideologically in support of them do not call them “settlements.” The settler movement began following the War of 1967, when Israel occupied the West Bank, East Jerusalem, Gaza, the Golan Heights in Syria and the Sinai in Egypt. Settlements are most controversial when they are built within the Occupied Palestinian Territories of the West Bank, East Jerusalem and Gaza, which some Israelis refer to as Judea and Samaria or as “disputed” territories. Many proponents of the settler movement claim that settlement of these lands is a divine right, mandated by religious texts, and part of the Zionist imperative to settle Eretz Yisrael or the Land of Israel. Less ideological proponents regard settlements as a security necessity for Israel. Opponents argue that such settlements are illegal under international law, annex Palestinian-owned land, and preclude the final status of disputed borders between Israel and a future Palestinian state. By and large, settlements receive Israeli government funding, as well as military and infrastructural support (see Settlement Subsidies). The course of the Separation Barrier frequently juts into the West Bank in order to protect settlements within this territory. In 2005, the Likud-led Israeli government initiated the withdrawal of 8,000 settlers from Gaza and from a handful of settlements in the West Bank (see Gaza Disengagement). Over 130 settlements remain in the West Bank (including East Jerusalem), with a population of approximately 500,000 in 2009. Additionally, there are settlement outposts, which were established by Jewish Israelis in the Occupied Palestinian Territories without seeking permission from the proper Israeli authorities (see Outpost). See Gorenberg, Gershon. The Accidental Empire: Israel and the Birth of the Settlements 1967-1977. New York: Henry Holt, 2006; Masalha, Nur. Imperial Israel And The Palestinians: The Politics of Expansion. London: Pluto Press, 2000;  “Land Expropriation and Settlements.” B’Tselem. 8 August 2011. http://www.btselem.org/English/Settlements/; and “Settlements.” Peace Now. 8 August 2011. http://peacenow.org.il/eng/content/settlements.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/settlement

Settlement Bloc

A conglomeration of Jewish Israeli settlements in the West Bank (and before the 2005 disengagement, in the Gaza Strip). Their borders are left undefined by the Israeli government for two reasons: 1) to allow for gradual expansion of the settlements within them, referred to as “natural growth,” and 2) to expand outward to include peripheral settlements not previously designated as within the bloc. Neither Palestinians nor the international community confer special status to settlements within settlement blocs, maintaining the view that all settlements in the West Bank and East Jerusalem are illegally constructed on occupied land. The largest settlement blocs in East Jerusalem and the West Bank are the Ariel bloc, the Jerusalem bloc, the Modi’in bloc and the Etzion bloc. For details, see Ofran, Hagit and Lara Friedman. ”West Bank ‘Settlement Blocs’.” May 2008. Peace Now. 24 August 2011. http://www.peacenow.org.il/eng/content/west-bank-”settlement-blocs”http://www.justvision.org/glossary/settlement-bloc

Settlement Subsidies

The State of Israel historically subsidized much of the Jewish Israeli settler movement. Those who choose to settle in the West Bank are given substantial benefits from both the government and private organizations. For example, the Israeli government offers Jewish Israelis 97,200 shekels for the purchase of a property in a settlement bloc, a 50% reduction on development costs and a 70% reduction on land prices. The Israeli government also provides other subsidies for public transportation to the settlements, which amounted to 31 million shekels in 2011. See Gorenberg, Gershon. The Accidental Empire: Israel and the Birth of the Settlements 1967-1977. New York: Henry Holt. 2006; and Ofran, Hagit. “The price of maintaining the territories - data from 2011-2012 budget.” 26 December 2010. Peace Now. 24 August 2011. http://peacenow.org.il/eng/content/price-maintaining-territories-data-2011-2012-budget.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/settlement-subsidies

Settler

A Jewish Israeli living in a settlement – a Jewish community in the Occupied Palestinian Territories of the West Bank, East Jerusalem and, before the 2005 “disengagement”, the Gaza Strip (see Gaza Disengagement). The settlements, established following Israel’s capture of the West Bank, East Jerusalem and Gaza Strip in the War of 1967, are widely recognized as illegal under international law. In 2009, approximately 500,000 Jewish Israelis resided in over 130 settlements the West Bank and East Jerusalem. Jewish Israelis also reside in settlement outposts, which were established without going through the proper Israeli authorities. See Outpost, Settlement, Settlement Bloc and Settlement Subsidies.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/settler

Shalit, Gilad

(1986- ) An Israeli soldier who Hamas captured on June 25, 2006 in a raid across the Israeli border near the Kerem Shalom border crossing into Gaza. The first Israeli soldier captured by Palestinians since 1994, Hamas held Shalit hostage until October 2011, when he was released in exchange for the release of over 1,000 Palestinian prisoners. The two main obstacles in the previous negotiations between Hamas and Israel for Shalit’s release had been: 1) Hamas’ insistence on the release of Marwan Barghouti, currently serving five life sentences for murder (he was not part of the prisoner exchange); and 2) Israel’s demand for 230 Hamas-affiliated prisoners held by the Palestinian Authority, many of whom were arrested in coordination with Israel after the Hamas takeover of Gaza in 2007, to be expelled from the West Bank. Those who called for Shalit’s release include the United Nations as well as various international human rights and aid organizations. For information on Gilad Shalit’s prior captivity, efforts to free him and his release, see “Special:Gaza Captive.” Ynet News. 19 October 2011. http://www.ynetnews.com/home/0,7340,L-4244,00.html. For information on sticking points in the negotiations between Israel and Hamas, see Issacharoff, Avi and Amos Harel. “Egypt: Shalit will disappear unless Israel compromises with Hamas.” Haaretz. 19 June 2011. http://www.haaretz.com/print-edition/news/egypt-shalit-will-disappear-un....  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/shalit-gilad

Shamir, Yitzhak

(1915- ) A Jewish Israeli political, military and intelligence figure of Polish origin. Shamir immigrated to Palestine in 1935. He was a member of both the Irgun and Lehi/Stern Gang (Jewish paramilitary groups that were subsumed into the Israeli army in 1948), and upon the creation of the State of Israel in 1948, became an active Israeli foreign intelligence agent in Europe. Shamir joined the Herut party (the precursor to the Likud party) in 1969, and was active in politics from then on. Prime Minister of Israel from 1983–1984 and 1986–1992, his government entered the Madrid Conference talks with Palestinian representatives, Syria, Jordan and Lebanon in 1991. See Hartley, Cathy, ed. A Survey of Arab-Israeli Relations, 2nd ed. London and New York: Europa Publications, 2004; and “Yitzhak Shamir.” 26 July 1998. Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 8 August 2011. http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/Facts%20About%20Israel/State/Yitzhak%20Shamir.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/shamir-yitzhak

Sharm El Sheikh

An Egyptian resort town located near the southern tip of the Sinai Peninsula. It has been the site of various summit meetings and negotiations between Israeli, Palestinian and Arab leaders.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/sharm-el-sheikh

Sharon, Ariel

(1928- ) A Jewish Israeli political and military figure. From the year of the Israeli army’s founding in 1948 until 1973, Sharon served as a commander and officer. Upon his retirement from the army, he helped found the Likud party and went on to serve in many ministerial positions within the Israeli government. Israeli Minister of Defense during the Lebanon War from 1981-1983 (see War of 1982), Sharon resigned after a government commission found him indirectly responsible for the September 1982 massacre of Palestinians at the Sabra and Shatila refugee camps by Lebanese Christian Phalangist militias. He also held the position of Minister of Construction and Housing from 1990-1992, overseeing the most comprehensive expansion of Jewish Israeli settlements in the West Bank and Gaza since Israel’s occupation of the Palestinian Territories in 1967. Prime Minister of Israel from 2001-2006. Sharon initiated and oversaw the withdrawal of all Israeli settlers from Gaza in the summer of 2005 (see Gaza Disengagement). In November 2005, he quit the Likud party and formed Kadima, stating that the Likud party was no longer equipped to lead Israel nor oversee any future peace deals with the Palestinians. In early January 2006, Sharon suffered a massive stroke, underwent several operations, and is currently in a coma. Following Sharon’s admission to the hospital, powers of the Israeli Prime Minister were transferred to Deputy Prime Minister Ehud Olmert. See Hartley, Cathy, ed. A Survey of Arab-Israeli Relations, 2nd ed. London and New York: Europa Publications, 2004; and “Profile of Ariel Sharon.” 12 November 2010. BBC. 27 June 2011. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/1154622.stm.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/sharon-ariel

Sharret, Moshe

(1894-1965) A Jewish Israeli political figure of Ukrainian origin. He immigrated to Palestine in 1908. Sharett became a member of the Jewish socialist party Mapai and, from 1933-1948, took on the role of the Zionist movement’s ambassador and chief negotiator to the British Mandatory Authorities of Palestine. One of the signatories of Israel’s Declaration of Independence in 1948, he served as Israel’s first Foreign Minister until 1956, alongside a short stint as Prime Minister from 1954-1955. See “Moshe Sharett.” Jewish Virtual Library. 14 June 2011. http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/biography/sharett.html.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/sharret-moshe

Shas

An Israeli political party formed in 1984 to represent Sephardic (North African and Middle Eastern) Jews, whom the party claims are discriminated against both socially and economically. The party believes in the institution of laws that maintain the Jewish identity of the state, including some Judaic religious laws. Shas strongly advocates for the compensation by Arab countries of Sephardic Jews that were forced to leave their “host countries” after the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948; this compensation is a condition for the party’s consideration of a peace deal with the Palestinians. Since 2009, the party has become more supportive of Jewish Israeli settlements, particularly those surrounding historic Jewish religious sites and in the greater Jerusalem area. See “Shas.” The Knesset. 24 August 2011. http://www.knesset.gov.il/faction/eng/FactionPage_eng.asp?PG=2; and  “Shas.” Ynet News. 4 April 2008. http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-3499178,00.html.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/shas

Sheba’a Farms

Bordering Israel, Syria and Lebanon, the status of this 25 sq. km stretch of land, consisting of 14 farms named after a nearby village, remains controversial. Israel occupied the Sheba’a Farms after the War of 1967. Following Israel’s withdrawal from southern Lebanon in 2000 after a nearly two-decade long military presence,  Hezbollah and Lebanon, backed by Syria, demanded that Israel also pull out from the Sheba’a Farms. Israel, however, claimed the territory was part of Syria, and thus could only be turned over as part of negotiations with Syria. The maps of the United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon sided with Israel, showing that the strip of land was part of Syria at the time of the War of 1967. See Kumaraswamy, P.R. “Sheba’a Farms.” Historical Dictionary of the Arab-Israeli Conflict. Oxford: The Scarecrow Press, 2006; and “In Focus: Shebaa Farms.” 25 May 2000. BBC. 24 August 2011. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/763504.stm.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/sheba’-farms

Shefar-Amer/Shefaram

(Shefar-Amer in Arabic and Shefaram in Hebrew) A city in northern Israel, located in the Galilee region. Est. population in 2009: 35,100, predominantly Palestinian Arab citizens of Israel.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/shefaramer-shefaram

Sheikh Jarrah

A Palestinian neighborhood in the Jerusalem municipal boundaries (in an area called East Jerusalem), located near the Old City. Est. population in 2008: 707, most of whom carry Jerusalem IDs. Since 2009, Palestinian residents and their supporters have held weekly protests against the eviction of Palestinian residents from their homes and the subsequent settlement of Jewish Israelis in those homes. See Jerusalem and Jerusalem ID.  http://ww.justvision.org/glossary/sheikh-jarrah

Shministim

(Hebrew for “twelfth graders”). It is a movement of high school students that publicly, often in letters to the Israeli government, refuse to serve in the Israeli military due to their conscientious objection to human rights abuses by the Israeli military and other beliefs and values. By publicly refusing to serve, they often serve time in Israeli prison, as conscientious objection is not considered to be a valid reason to negate conscription according to Israeli law. See also Refuseniks. For information on refusal of military service in general, “Israel: Sanctions for and consequences of avoiding military service or refusing to bear arms or to follow orders from officers, including in battle zones; possibility for soldiers to sue officers for improper conduct or wrong-minded orders.” 11 March 2009. Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada. 22 May 2011. http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid/4a7040a4c.html. For a copy of the 2009-2010 Shministim letter, see “Our Letter.” 2009. Shministim.com. 22 May 2011. http://www.shministim.com/our-letter/.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/shministim

Shu'fat Refugee Camp

A Palestinian refugee camp within the Jerusalem municipal borders. Est. population according to UNRWA: 18,000, all of whom carry Jerusalem IDs. Israel’s Separation Barrier cuts through the camp. See Jerusalem and Jerusalem IDs.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/shufat-refugee-camp

Shufa

A Palestinian village in the northern West Bank, located 6 km southeast of the city of Tulkarm. Est. population in 2007: 2,194.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/shufa

Siege of Church of the Nativity

Israeli forces entered the Palestinian city of Bethlehem on April 2, 2002, as part of Operation Defensive Shield. As fighting erupted throughout the city between Palestinian gunmen and the Israeli army, civilians and militants took refuge in Bethlehem’s churches. A large group of civilians and militants, including 13 who Israel considered to be on their most-wanted list, took refuge in the Church of the Nativity. The Israeli army laid siege to the church, surrounding it and engaging in occasional skirmishes with militants inside the church compound. The standoff, which lasted 39 days, ended with 13 militants sent into exile, 26 gunmen taken to Gaza, and 85 policemen, local civilians and international peace activists released. See “Church siege ending after 39 days.” The Guardian. 10 May 2002. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2002/may/10/israel.cyprus; and “Timeline: Bethlehem Siege.” BBC News. 10 May 2002. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/1950331.stm.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/siege-church-nativity

Silwan

A Palestinian neighborhood in the Jerusalem municipal boundaries (in an area called East Jerusalem), located near the Old City. Est. population in 2008: 12,131, most of whom carry Jerusalem IDs. Silwan has a budding Jewish Israeli settler population. In 2010, as a reaction to the Jerusalem municipality’s approval to demolish Palestinian homes, Palestinian residents and supporters began holding regular demonstrations in the neighborhood. See Jerusalem and Jerusalem ID.

Sinai Peninsula

A triangle-shaped peninsula in Egypt, located between the Mediterranean Sea and Red Sea. The Suez Canal runs along the northwestern edge of the peninsula. It was a strategic location in the Wars of 1956, 1967 and 1973. Captured by Israel in 1967, Israel returned the peninsula to Egypt in 1979 in exchange for bilateral peace between the two countries (see Israeli-Egyptian Peace Treaty).  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/sinai-peninsula

Stockholm Back-Channel Negotiations

In May 2000, Stockholm, Sweden was the site of marathon secret sessions between Israeli and Palestinian negotiators in an attempt to narrow the differences between the two sides in preparation for the Camp David (II) Summit scheduled for July of that year. Both sides later claimed that some of the understandings reached there were not respected at Camp David. See also Camp David. See “Israeli, Palestinian negotiators discussed Mideast talks.” BBC. 2 June 2000. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/772808.stm.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/stockholm-back-channel-negotiations

Suez Canal

Runs along the northwestern edge of the Sinai Peninsula and mainland Egypt. The canal was a key location during the Wars of 1956, 1967 and 1973.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/suez-canal

Suicide Attack/Bombing

Also referred to in the Arabic language and by Islamist groups as "martyrdom operations" (the act of suicide is forbidden in Islam), and by certain academics and Jewish groups as "homicide bombings." In most cases, the term is used to refer to militant operations during which the assailant detonates a bomb nearby targeted victims, sacrificing him or herself during the attack. While Palestinian suicide bombers do target Israeli military installations, they most often strike Israeli civilian areas. These attacks became especially popular in 1994 and during the tense years of the Oslo Process, employed most often by Hamas and Palestinian Islamic Jihad. A second more frequent slew of attacks began after the start of the Second Intifada, including attacks by the al-Aqsa Martyrs’ Brigade in addition to Hamas and Islamic Jihad. See also Martyrdom Operations. For a list of attacks since 1994, see "Suicide and Other Bombing Attacks in Israel Since the Declaration of Principles (Sept 1993)." Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 8 August 2011. http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/Terrorism-+Obstacle+to+Peace/Palestinian+terror+since+2000/Suicide+and+Other+Bombing+Attacks+in+Israel+Since.htm.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/suicide-attackbombing

Sulha

(Arabic for “reconciliation”) A Middle Eastern form of conflict resolution, though its most often attributed to Islam. Still used today, it is practiced by Palestinians in the Occupied Palestinian Territories as well as Palestinian Arab citizens of Israel, including the Druze. See Jabbour, Elias. Sulha: Palestinian traditional peacemaking process. Montreat, North Carolina: House of Hope Publications, 1996; and “What is Sulha?” Sulha Research Center. 24 August 2011. http://www.sulha.org/category/whatisulha/.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/sulha

Ta'ayush

(Arabic for “coexistence”) Founded in 2000 as a grassroots movement of “Israelis & Palestinians striving together to end the Israeli occupation and to achieve full civil equality through daily non-violent direct-action.” Some of its major activities include accompanying Palestinian farmers and sheep herders to their lands, supporting Palestinians in water-sanitation initiatives and other restoration activities, participating in protests of Israel’s Separation Barrier and the displacement of Palestinians from their homes, as well as raising awareness to the effects of Israel’s occupation on the Palestinian population. See the movement’s website at http://www.taayush.org/.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/taayush

Taba Talks

An Egyptian Red Sea resort town just across the Israeli-Egyptian Sinai border. Taba was the site for a series of talks in January 2001 between Israelis and Palestinians, after the failure of the Camp David II Summit and the outbreak of the Second Intifada in the previous year. Differences were considerably narrowed but no final agreement was produced. The negotiations were a last attempt to salvage a peace settlement before Israeli elections in February, in which Ariel Sharon of the Likud party was expected to and did win a resounding victory, replacing Ehud Barak of the Labor party as Prime Minister. European Union Representative Miguel Moratinos later provided an unofficial but authoritative report of the talks. Some have considered it as the best model for an eventual settlement. See “Deconstructing the Taba Talks.” Settlement Report. Vol. 11, No. 2 (March-April 2001). 24 August 2011. http://www.fmep.org/reports/vol11/no2/04-deconstructing_taba_talks.html; and “Taba Negotiations: The Moratinos Non-Paper.” January 2001. MidEast Web. 24 August 2011. http://www.mideastweb.org/moratinos.htm.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/taba-talks

Talitha Kumi

A Christian school in Beit Jala, a Palestinian town located just west of the city of Bethlehem. It was originally founded in Jerusalem in 1851 by a German Deaconess and was moved to Beit Jala sometime after Israel’s establishment in 1948. See the school’s website at http://www.talithakumi.org/.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/talitha-kumi-

Tamir, Yuli

(1954- ) A Jewish Israeli political figure and intellectual. Tamir began her career as a professor of political philosophy and still currently teaches at Tel Aviv University; she also helped start the Israeli Peace Now movement in 1978. As a member of the Labor party, Tamir first entered politics when appointed as Minister of Immigrant Absorption in 1999. She went on to serve in the Israeli parliament from 2003-2010. During her time as Minister of Education from 2006-2009, Tamir: 1) approved a textbook for use in Palestinian Arab Israeli schools that mentioned Al-Nakba, the Palestinian term for the expulsion or dispossession of Palestinians after Israel’s establishment and the subsequent War of 1948, and 2) announced plans to remove Revisionist Zionist leader Ze’ev Jabotinksy’s work from Israel’s national curriculum. She resigned her position in parliament in 2010. See “Yael (Yuli) Tamir, MK.” Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 24 August 2011. http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/MFAArchive/2000_2009/2001/3/Yael%20-Yuli-%20Tamir; and Ben-Yehuda, Roi. “Peace movement has become powerless, says MK Yuli Tamir.” 27 December 2009. http://www.haaretz.com/news/peace-movement-has-become-powerless-says-mk-yuli-tamir-1.1294http://www.justvision.org/glossary/tamir-yuli

Tamra

A city in northern Israel, located northeast of the city of Haifa. Est. population in 2009: 28,100, the majority of whom are Palestinian Arab citizens of Israel.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/tamra

Tantur Ecumenical Institute

A Christian educational institute focused on bringing Christian clergy and adherents from all over the world to the “Holy Land,” with a particular focus on interdenominational harmony and peace and justice issues. See the Institute’s website at http://tantur.org.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/tantur-ecumenical-institute

Tanzim

(Arabic for “organization”) A militant wing of Fatah. Founded in 1995 by Yasser Arafat as a way of securing support from more militant elements of the Palestinian population. Its leaders include Marwan Barghouti, Hachem Balawy and Ahmad Chiles. Tanzim’s strategies include bombings and shootings, usually high profile, to pressure Israel into negotiations for a future Palestinian state. Most active during the Second Intifada against Israeli troops, the group does not call for the destruction of the State of Israel. See “Fatah Tanzim.” Global Security.org. 9 November 2007. http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/para/fatah-tanzim.htm.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/tanzim

Targeted Assassinations

The State of Israel increased its use of targeted assassinations of “wanted” men in the Occupied Palestinian Territories during the Second Intifada; 251 Palestinians were killed in this manner in the Occupied Palestinian Territories between 2000-2011, including an additional 174 Palestinians killed as a result of the targeted killing. Israeli security forces have employed the tactic since the 1970s. The most infamous series of Israel’s targeted assassinations abroad took place following the massacre of Israeli athletes at the 1972 Munich Summer Olympics. More recently and more locally, Israel has dropped bombs to kill leaders of Palestinian militant organizations, including Hamas leader Ahmed Yassin in 2004, Hamas leader Abdel Aziz al-Rantisi in 2005 and Mohammed Nimnim of the Army of Islam in 2010. Palestinian militant groups have also used targeted assassinations, although far less frequently. The tactic is criticized both locally and internationally for the level of civilian casualties it can produce and also for the lack of due process in bringing the accused to justice. Proponents often argue that it is a tactic to prevent or deter further violence. For statistics of Palestinians killed as a result of an Israeli targeted assassination, see  “Statistics.” B’Tselem. 3 October 2011. http://old.btselem.org/statistics/english/Casualties.asp. For a perspective against Israel’s use of targeted assassinations, see Stein, Yael. “Position Paper: Israel’s Assassination Policy: Extra-judicial Executions." 9 November 20003. B’Tselem. 3 October 2011. www.btselem.org/download/200101_extrajudicial_killings_eng.doc. For a supportive perspective, see Luft, Gal. “The Logic of Israel’s Targeted Killing.” Middle East Quarterly (Winter 2003), pp. 3-13. http://www.meforum.org/515/the-logic-of-israels-targeted-killinghttp://www.justvision.org/glossary/targeted-assassinations

Tayibe

A town in central Israel, located east of the city of Netaniya and just west of the Green Line. Est. population in 2009: 35,800, predominantly Palestinian Arab citizens of Israel.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/tayibe

Tekoa

A Jewish Israeli settlement in the southern West Bank, located southeast of the Palestinian city of Bethlehem. Est. population in 2006: 1,300.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/tekoa

Tel Aviv

A city in central Israel, located along the Mediterranean Sea and about 64 km west of Jerusalem. Est. population in 2009, combined with the population of Jaffa: 393,200. Tel Aviv’s population is predominantly Jewish Israeli. The city houses all foreign embassies.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/tel-aviv

Tel Aviv University

An university in central Israel, located in the city of Tel Aviv. See the university’s website at http://international.tau.ac.il/.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/tel-aviv-university

Tel Mond

A city in central Israel, located southeast of the city of Netanya. Est. population in 2009: 10,700, predominantly Jewish Israelis.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/tel-mond

Temple Mount

Located in the Old City of Jerusalem, the site is sacred to both Jews and Muslims. In Judaism, the Temple Mount, known as Har HaBayit in Hebrew, refers to the area where the First and Second Jewish Temples are believed to have once resided. The location is revered by Jews together with the Western (or Wailing) Wall beside it, which is considered the last remnant of the Second Temple. For Muslims, the area of the Temple Mount is known as the Haram al-Sharif (The Noble Sanctuary) and is what makes Jerusalem the third holiest city in Islam after Mecca and Medina. The Haram al-Sharif includes the Dome of the Rock shrine and the Al-Aqsa mosque. Related to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, sovereignty over the Temple Mount/Haram al-Sharif and related holy sites has become a major point of contention in negotiations as both Jews and Muslims greatly revere the area. While Israel maintains sovereignty over the site, the Islamic Waqf runs it on a day-to-day basis. The Jordanian Ministry of Awqaf (“Pious Endowments”) is recognized by Israel as the custodian of the Islamic Holy Sites of Jerusalem, a position that is challenged by the Palestinians. Jordan has been in charge of maintenance of the Haram al-Sharif since 1954. Wasserstein, Bernard. Divided Jerusalem: The Struggle for the Holy City. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2001.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/temple-mount

The Jerusalem Women's Center

Known as Kol Ha-Isha in Hebrew, which means "The Woman's Voice." Founded in 1994, this Israeli nonprofit organization seeks to advance an inclusive, multicultural and feminist model of social change, addressing issues such as militarism, social and economic inequalities and legal discrimination. The organization also strives to empower women from different backgrounds, specifically marginalized groups, through programs that place women in positions of leadership as well as programs that deal with various social, cultural, economic and political issues. See the organization’s website at http://www.kolhaisha.org.il/.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/the-jerusalem-womens-center

The Mutaqaa/Yasser Arafat's Compound

Located in the Palestinian city of Ramallah in the central West Bank, the compound houses the Palestinian Authority (PA)’s government offices. In April 2002 (see April 2002 Israeli military invasion/Operation Defensive Shield), the Israeli army raided the compound placed it under siege in an attempt to isolate PA President Yasser Arafat from the rest of the Occupied Palestinian Territories. The siege was a response to the Second Intifada amid Israeli claims that Arafat and some of his colleagues were supporting terrorism. Arafat was held under house arrest at the compound from April 2002-October 2004, after which he was flown to Paris, France for medical treatment. The Muqataa is also the sight of Yasser Arafat’s tomb. See “Inside Arafat’s compound of rubble.” BBC. 22 September 2002. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/1902566.stm; and “Arafat mausoleum opened by Abbas.” BBC. 10 November 2007. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/7088743.stmhttp://www.justvision.org/glossary/mutaqaayasser-arafats-compound

The Palestine Papers

A cache of more than 1,600 confidential documents from negotiations between Israel and the Palestinian Authority (PA) between 1999 and 2010. Leaked by employees in the Palestinian Negotiations Support Unit, Al-Jazeera published the documents in late January 2011. The documents revealed, among other things, details about 1) the PA’s concessions regarding Israeli settlements in East Jerusalem and Palestinian refugees’ right to return; 2) the PA’s joint security work with Israel; and 3) the possibility that the PA knew about the Gaza War prior to Israel’s military offensive in late December 2008. Al-Jazeera’s publication of the Palestine Papers was extremely controversial within Palestinian society. Some Palestinians saw the Papers as confirmation that the PA was unfit to lead and had made too many compromises with Israel. Others Palestinians, including the PA, believed the publication of the Papers to be a ploy to overthrow the Fatah-dominated PA and that many of the details of the PA’s dealings with Israel were taken out of context. Israeli Foreign Minister Avigdor Lieberman stated the Papers proved that even a left-wing government in Israel could not find agreement with the Palestinians and therefore a plan that defined provisional borders for the West Bank would be best. In February 2011, the Palestinian Liberation Organization’s chief negotiator Saeb Erekat resigned from his post and the Palestinian Negotiation Support Unit was dissolved. See “The Palestine Papers.” Al Jazeera. 5 January 2011. ; “Palestinians attack al-Jazeera ‘distorted’ talks leaks.” BBC News. 24 January 2011. ; and “Lieberman: Leaked Palestinian papers prove interim deal is only option.” Haaretz. 24 January 2011.

The People's Voice

An Israeli-Palestinian civil initiative designed to advance a particular set of principles related to contentious issues to be resolved in any eventual diplomatic peace process. Signed in July 2002 by Ami Ayalon, an Israeli political and security figure, and Dr. Sari Nusseibeh, a Palestinian professor and political figure. The initiative was publicly launched in June 2003 to gain supporters. In late 2007, the People’s Voice website went offline, but the Hebrew part was relaunched in 2008. For the text of the original initiative, see “Statement of Principles - Signed by Ami Ayalon & Sari Nusseibeh on July 27, 2002.” 27 July 2002. ReliefWeb. 8 August 2011. http://reliefweb.int/node/171368.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/peoples-voice

The Triangle

(Mishulash in Hebrew and Muthallath in Arabic) An area in central Israel, comprised of Palestinian Arab villages.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/triangle

Tiberias

A city in northern Israel, located on the Sea of Galilee. Est. population in 2009: 39,500, predominantly Jewish Israelis.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/tiberias

Tira

A city in northern Israel, located about 16 km northeast of the city of Tel Aviv. Est. population in 2009: 22,100, predominantly Palestinian Arab citizens of Israel.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/tira

Tulkarm

A city in the Northwest of the West Bank in the Occupied Palestinian Territories, population approximately 45,000, the vast majority of whom are Palestinians. The total population of the Tulkarm district is 170,000.

Two-State Solution

Refers to the notion of establishing a sovereign Palestinian state alongside a sovereign State of Israel. Has been the most accepted framework in Palestinian-Israeli peace talks since the Oslo Process began in 1993, though some deem this solution to be impossible now due to the expansion of Jewish Israeli settlements in the West Bank and East Jerusalem. Key disputed issues for a two-state solution include: the actual boundaries of a nascent contemporary Palestine; the location of its capital; the nature of government; the type of economic relations with its neighbors; the handling of Palestinian refugees seeking repatriation to Israel and/or Palestine or compensation by Israel; the degree of access to natural resources as well as control over borders; the contiguity of land; defense matters and air space; Israel’s final borders and jurisdiction; access to and control over Jerusalem’s holy sites by both states; the status of Israel’s settlements. See Quandy, William B, Ali Abunimah, Ghanem Asad, Ben-Meir Alon. Middle East Policy. Vol. 16, No. 1 (2009), pp. 1-27.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/two-state-solution

Tzufim

A Jewish Israeli settlement in the northern West Bank, located just north of the Palestinian city of Qalqilia. Just Vision is not able to find recent/reliable population data for Tzufim.

Ultra-Orthodox Judaism

Also known as Haredi (Hebrew for “Orthodox”) Judaism. It is the most conservative sect of Orthodox Judaism and requires a strict adherence to the religious practices and moral precepts outlined in the Torah and Talmud; this strict adherence can also include separation from others that don’t follow the same practices. In Israel, with the exception of the Shas party, many ultra-Orthodox Jews don’t directly participate in political parties. See “ultra-Orthodox Judaism." Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 8 June 2011. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/1192147/ultra-Orthodox-Judaism.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/ultra-orthodox-judaism

Um Al-Fahem

A city in northern Israel, located near the city of Haifa. Est. population in 2009: 44,900, predominantly Palestinian Arab citizens of Israel.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/um-al-fahem

Um Salmona

A Palestinian village in the southern West Bank, located 12 km southwest of the city of Bethlehem. Est. population in 2007: 945. In 2007, Um Salmona, along with other villages in the southern Bethlehem area, began holding regular protests against Israel’s Separation Barrier that cuts through the village.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/um-salmona

United Nations Development Program (UNDP)

The global development network of the United Nations. Active in 166 countries, the UNDP is "an organization advocating for change and connecting countries to knowledge, experience and resources to help people build a better life." See the UNDP website at http://www.undp.org.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/united-nations-development-program-undp

United Nations Vote on Palestinian Statehood

On September 23, 2011, Palestinian Authority (PA) President and Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) Chairman Mahmoud Abbas submitted an application to the United Nations (UN) for the recognition of Palestine as a full member state. At the time of the application, the PLO held observer status at the UN. By applying for full membership, Abbas was seeking symbolic recognition of Palestine within the 1967 borders (Gaza, West Bank and East Jerusalem) and the ability to join various UN agencies and international treaties. Proponents saw this move as a strategic avenue for the Palestinians to challenge Israel’s military occupation of the Palestinian Territories and demonstrate widespread international support for Palestinian statehood. Opponents decried the bid as bypassing needed negotiations between Israel and the Palestinians. Palestinian opposition viewed the bid as a way for Abbas to distract from internal political divisions and issues. In response to the pursuit of the bid, the United States and Israel withheld funding to the PA. UNESCO accepted Palestine as a full member on October 31, resulting in the US pulling its funding from the UN agency. Other votes within the UN have been delayed as the Palestinians decide how to proceed, though many view the bid as dead. In regards to a UN Security Council vote, the US has promised to veto while France and Britain have said they will abstain. The Palestinians could also seek enhanced observer status through a UN General Assembly vote. For more information, see “Q&A: Palestinian bid for full membership at the UN.” BBC News. 24 September 2011.

UNRWA

The United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East is a relief and human development agency serving the millions of registered Palestinian refugees in the Gaza Strip, West Bank, Jordan, Lebanon and Syria. The Agency was established in 1949 in response to the refugee crisis that resulted from the War of 1948. See UNRWA’s website at http://www.unrwa.org/.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/unrwa

Ussishkin, Abraham

(1863-1941) A Jewish Zionist figure of Russian origin. He immigrated to Palestine in 1919. A key player in the growing Zionist Movement in Europe, he led the opposition to Theordor Herzl’s entertainment of Uganda as a Jewish homeland. While serving as head of the Jewish National Fund from 1923-1941, he increased the land property of the Fund in Palestine, and in extension the Jewish people, from 22,000 to 56,000 dunams. See “Ussishkin, Abraham Menaihem Mendal.” Jewish Virtual LIbrary. 14 June 2011. http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/judaica/ejud_0002_0020_0_202...  http://www.justvision.orgglossary/ussishkin-abraham

Wachsman, Nachshon

(1975-1994) A Jewish Israeli soldier kidnapped by Hamas on October 9, 1994 while returning home after a military training in the north of Israel. Days after he was taken hostage, Hamas circulated a videotape demanding the release of Sheikh Ahmed Yassin, Hamas’ spiritual leader, and 200 Palestinian prisoners. Both the kidnappers and Nachshon Wachshman were killed during a failed military rescue attempt on October 14. See “Nachshon Wachsman.” Ynet News. 11 March 2009. http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-3684709,00.htmlhttp://www.justvision.org/glossary/wachsman-nachshon

Wadi Ara

A valley in northern Israel, between the Mediterranean coast to the east and the lower Galilee to west.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/wadi-ara

War of 1948

Known as the War of Independence to Israelis and Al-Nakba (Arabic for “the catastrophe”) to Palestinians. The war lasted from the time of the passage of the United Nations (UN) Partition Plan (see Resolution 181/Partition Plan) on November 29, 1947 until January 1949, when armistice agreements with four Arab states ended the hostilities for the time being. Sporadic violence between groups of Jews and Palestinians began immediately after the passage of the UN Partition Plan, followed by the entrance of the Arab Liberation Army and other irregulars into Palestine in the next few months. The initiative remained in Palestinian hands until the Haganah (a Jewish paramilitary group and precursor to the Israeli army) began a series of offensives in March 1948, resulting in the capture of considerable territory and the flight and/or expulsion of hundreds of thousands of Palestinians. Israel declared its independence on May 14, and troops from Egypt, Transjordan, Syria, Lebanon and Iraq entered Palestine the next day to support the Palestinians. Israel was overwhelmingly successful against these armies - except for the Transjordanian Arab Legion, which held East Jerusalem and the West Bank - Israel had greatly expanded beyond the territory it would have received under the Partition Plan. The war displaced hundreds of thousands of Palestinians (most estimates fall in the 700,000-800,000 range), who either fled or were expelled by pre-state Zionist militias or, later, by Israeli forces, leaving much of their belongings and land to Israeli expropriation. Hundreds of thousands fled into neighboring countries, the West Bank or the Gaza Strip, which was held by Egypt. The disastrous impact of the war on Palestinians led to their terming of the war Al-Nakba, while Israelis, considering that they were engaged in a defensive conflict, term it the War of Independence. See also Al-Nakba, 1948 and Independence Day. See Herzog, Chaim. Arab-Israeli Wars. New York: Vintage Books, 2005; Kimmerling, Baruch and Joel S. Migdal. The Palestinian People: A History. London: Harvard University Press, 2003; Said, Edward The Question of Palestine, New York: Vintage Books, 1992; and A Country Study: Israel. 1988. Library of Congress. 19 October 2011. http://countrystudies.us/israel/11.htmhttp://www.justvision.org/glossary/war-1948

War of 1956

Also known as the Sinai Campaign and the Suez Crisis. A brief military campaign in October and November of 1956, during which Israel, France and Britain colluded in an attack on Egypt. Israel was determined to punish Egypt for raids against its settlements from the Gaza Strip, while France and Britain were responding to Egyptian President Gamel Abdul Nasser’s nationalization of the Suez Canal, a move that challenged European economic interests in the region. As arranged by the three countries beforehand, Israel entered the Sinai Peninsula on October 29, 1956 and swiftly conquered it, reaching the Suez Canal itself. This was followed by British air raids of military targets near Cairo and the Suez Canal on October 31, and a British and French paratrooper drop just north of the Suez Canal on November 5. On November 6, Britain and France agreed to a United Nations (UN) sponsored cease-fire demanded by the United States. While the three countries had secured the Sinai Peninsula and the Suez Canal, they were forced to withdraw entirely following enormous pressure from the US and Soviet Union. Britain and France withdrew in December and Israel withdrew in March 1957. The war resulted in a sweeping political success for Nasser and a significant loss of remaining British and French influence in the Arab world. Though Israel was forced to forego territorial gains, the UN established a peacekeeping presence to protect the passage of Israeli ships through the Straits of Tiran, leading to the growth of Eilat, an Israeli port city on the Red Sea, and trade with the Far East. See Herzog, Chaim. Arab-Israeli Wars. New York: Vintage Books, 2005; Cleveland, William L. A History of the Modern Middle East. Boulder: Westview Press, 2000; Hourani, Albert A History of the Arab Peoples. Boston, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1991, pp. 365-9; and “UNGA Resolution 997.” MidEast Web. 19 October 2011. http://www.mideastweb.org/ga997.htm.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/war-1956

War of 1967

Commonly referred to by Palestinians as the June War or Al-Naksa (Arabic for "the setback"), and by Israelis as the 1967 War or Six-Day War. The war began in the early morning of June 5, 1967, when the Israeli air force preemptively attacked and destroyed most of the Egyptian air force while still on the ground, responding to Egyptian President Gamel Abdul Nasser’s closing of the Straits of Tiran to Israeli ships on May 22, 1967. Earlier in the month, Nasser had deployed Egyptian troops to the Sinai Peninsula and had demanded the removal of the United Nations troops there, who obliged and left. Prior to these steps by Nasser, false intelligence reports by the Soviet Union claimed that Israel was planning an attack on Syria for their sponsorship of Palestinian guerillas and was massing troops on its borders. It is still a matter of debate as to whether Nasser knew that the Soviet reports were false (and acted anyway) or believed they were true. Jordan had already put its troops under Egyptian command, and began shelling Israeli West Jerusalem, despite Israeli assurances that it would not attack Jordan if Jordan stayed neutral. Israel then destroyed the Jordanian Air Force. The war lasted six days, during which Israel captured the Egyptian Sinai Peninsula, the Syrian Golan Heights and the rest of pre-1948 Palestine, comprised of East Jerusalem, the West Bank and Gaza Strip. The war created a new reality in the Middle East, leading to the rise of Palestinian militancy, radical political activity and violence, and eventually the rise of Islamism as well as the willingness of Arab states to recognize Israel. See Cleveland, William L. A History of the Modern Middle East. Boulder: Westview Press, 2000; Herzog, Chaim. Arab-Israeli Wars. New York: Vintage Books, 2005; Haddad, William, Ghada Talhami and Janice Terry. The June 1967 War After Three Decades. Association of Arab-American University Graduates, 1999; and A Country Study: Israel. 1988. Library of Congress. 24 August 2011. http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/iltoc.html.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/war-1967

War of 1973

Also referred to as the October War, Yom Kippur War or Ramadan War. A coalition of Egyptian and Syrian forces launched a surprise attack on Israeli forces on October 6, 1973, crossing the Suez Canal into the Sinai Peninsula and attacking the Golan Heights, both captured by Israel during the War of 1967. While Israel suffered severe military setbacks, particularly at the beginning of the campaign, the Egyptian and Syrian attacks were ultimately stopped and Israeli troops crossed to the west side of the Suez Canal before a United Nations Security Council resolution halted the fighting (see Resolution 338). However, the ability of the Egyptian troops to breach the Israeli Bar Lev line east of the Suez Canal at the beginning of the war served as a major victory for Egyptian President Anwar Sadat, paving the way for his historic trip to Jerusalem in 1977 and the Camp David Accords of 1978. See Herzog, Chaim. Arab-Israeli Wars. New York: Vintage Books, 2005; Badri, Hasan. The Ramadan War, 1973. Hero Books, 1985; and A Country Study: Israel. December 1988. Library of Congress. 8 August 2011. http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/iltoc.html.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/war-1973

War of 1982

Also referred to as the (First) Lebanon War, the Lebanon Invasion or Operation Peace in the Galilee. In June 1982, Israel invaded Lebanon purportedly in retaliation for the attempted assassination of the Israeli Ambassador to England by men connected to the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO). However, Israeli Defense Minister Ariel Sharon had also been seeking a pretext to eliminate the PLO from Lebanon. Despite original statements that Israeli troops would only advance 40 km, Israeli forces quickly reached Beirut, where they laid siege to the Lebanese capital. International forces led by the United States then facilitated the departure of the PLO from Lebanon to Tunisia. Israel encouraged the election of Bashir Gemayel as Lebanon’s new President in August, but he was soon assassinated, after which his supporters massacred hundreds of Palestinian men, women and children in the Sabra and Shatilla refugee camps. Israeli forces remained to occupy much of southern Lebanon and engaged in a low-level guerilla war with Lebanese Shi'a groups, including Hezbollah. The war inspired protests in Israel and empowered the Israeli peace movement, eventually leading to Prime Minister Menachem Begin’s retirement and withdrawal from politics. In 1985, Israel withdrew to a 12 km security zone in southern Lebanon, where it remained until 2000. See Hartley, Cathy, ed. A Survey of Arab-Israeli Relations, 2nd ed. London and New York: Europa Publications, 2004; Herzog, Chaim. Arab-Israeli Wars. New York: Vintage Books, 2005; Habib, Camille H. The Consequences of Israel's Invasion of Lebanon, 1982: Failure of a Success. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University Microfilms International, 1997; and A Country Study: Israel. December 1988. Library of Congress. 21 July 2011. http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/iltoc.html.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/war-1982

Water and Environmental Development Organization (WEDO)

A Palestinian nonprofit organization established in 1997. Their stated mission is to "fill the growing gap between scientific research and policy recommendations concerning wastewater, solid waste management and environmental protection, on the one hand, and the absence of application of this knowledge on the other hand." See the PRIME website for details: http://www.vispo.com/PRIME/palecoagra.htm.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/water-and-environmental-development-organization-wedo

Weizman, Ezer

(1924-2005) A Jewish Israeli military and political figure. He was a fighter pilot during World War II with the British air force and returned to Palestine afterwards to help found the air force of the Haganah, a Jewish paramilitary group and precursor to the Israeli army. Weizman served in the Israeli army until 1969, retiring with the rank of Major-General. As a member of the Likud party, he served as Minister of Transportation from 1969-1970, Minister of Defense from 1977-1980 and was a member of the Israeli team that participated in negotiations that led to the Camp David Accords between Egypt and Israel in 1978. Weizman briefly left politics for four years in 1980 and returned as a member of the Yahad/Alignment party, which later aligned itself with the Labor party. Weizman was President of Israel from 1993-2000, resigning from his post following allegations against him of bribery. See “Ezer Weizman.” Jewish Virtual Library. 19 October 2011. http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/biography/ezer_weizman.html; and “Ezer Weizman.” The Knesset. 19 October 2011. http://www.knesset.gov.il/mk/eng/mk_eng.asp?mk_individual_id_t=690.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/weizman-ezer

West Bank

A Palestinian territory located to the west of the Jordan River and the Dead Sea, constituting approximately 21% of historic Palestine. Israel often refers to it by its biblical name “Judea and Samaria.” The territory was under Jordanian control from 1948-1967, followed by Israeli administrative and military occupation from 1967-1994. In 1994, an agreement pursuant to the Declaration of Principles gave the Palestinian Authority limited self-government for an interim five-year period, although Israel retained responsibility for security in different areas as well as for administration of the Jewish Israeli settlements in the territory. Est. Palestinian population in 2007 according to the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics: 2.3 million. According to Israel’s Central Bureau of Statistics, over 300,000 Jewish Israeli settlers resided in the West Bank in 2009; this number does not include settlements with populations under 2,000. Israel still maintains control of various areas of the West Bank, as laid out in the Oslo Process (see Areas A, B, C). In addition, Israel continues to build the Separation Barrier along the border of and jutting into the West Bank, operates military checkpoints within and along the borders of the territory, and conducts occasional military operations. See “West Bank.” 14 June 2011. CIA World Factbook. 21 July 2011. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/we.html; and Lazaroff, Tovah. “Settler population rose 4.9% in 2009.” Jerusalem Post. 10 March 2010. http://www.jpost.com/Israel/Article.aspx?id=170595http://www.justvision.org/glossary/west-bank

Western Wall

Known as al-Buraq in Arabic or HaKotel in Hebrew. Located in the Old City of Jerusalem adjacent to the Temple Mount or Haram al-Sharif (The Noble Sanctuary). Jewish reverence for the Western Wall stems from the belief that it is the last remnant of the Second Jewish Temple.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/western-wall

White (Churchill) Paper of 1922

Also called the Churchill White Paper, after Colonial Secretary Winston Churchill. Issued on June 3, 1922, the White Paper was the first official document from the British government re-asserting the Balfour Declaration within the framework of the Palestine mandate. It also split the Mandate area at the Jordan River and established the emirate of Transjordan, which was given to the Hashemite Prince Abdullah. The White Paper stated that Britain stood by the Balfour Declaration of 1917, which promised British support for the establishment of a Jewish National Home in Palestine but also attempted to calm Palestinian Arab fears that their life or culture would be subordinated. The White Paper also denied that the British had promised the Arabs “that an independent national government should be at once established in Palestine” after World War I, referring to the Arab interpretation of the Husayn-McMahon Correspondence. See “The British White Paper of 1922.” MidEast Web. 24 August 2011. http://www.mideastweb.org/1922wp.htm.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/white-churchill-paper-1922

White (MacDonald) Paper of 1939

A British policy paper issued by the British government in May 1939, following suppression of the Arab Revolt of 1936-1939, stating the British objective of establishing an “independent Palestine State” bound to Britain and encompassing both Jews and Arabs. It also nullified the promise of the Balfour Declaration for establishment of a Jewish National Home. The Paper was largely a response to Arab pressure over increased Jewish immigration to the area. On the eve of World War II and the Holocaust, the Paper recommended a five-year plan for limited Jewish immigration of 15,000 a year, including a requirement of Arab consent to immigration after the plan expired. It also placed limits on the rights of Jews to buy land from Arabs. It represented British policy until the United Nations Partition Plan of 1947 (see Resolution 181/Partition Plan). Zionist leader David Ben Gurion vowed to “fight the White Paper as if there were not Hitler and fight Hitler as if there were no White Paper.” For details, see “The British White Paper of 1939.” MidEast Web. 24 August 2011. http://www.mideastweb.org/1939.htm.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/white-macdonald-paper-1939

White (Passfield) Paper of 1930

Following the 1929 riots, the British government formed a Commission headed by Lord Passfield, which issued a policy paper that called for a Legislative Council in Palestine, and suggested implementation of the Hope-Simpson recommendations that Zionist land purchases and immigration should be restricted. This was the first time the British government had suggested such restrictions. The Zionist movement viewed it as a reversal of the policy of the Balfour Declaration and campaigned against it. In February 1931, British Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald sent a letter to Zionist leader Chaim Weizmann essentially canceling this Paper’s positions. See “The Passfield “White Paper.” MidEast Web. 24 August 2011. http://www.mideastweb.org/passfieldwp.htm.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/white-passfield-paper-1930

Windows

Founded in 1991, Windows is a joint Israeli-Palestinian nonprofit organization focused on youth and their acceptance of “the other.” The organization produces a youth-driven Hebrew-Arabic magazine named Windows and runs other media projects. Windows also has a center in the Israeli city of Tel Aviv that serves as a meeting place for activists, youth and other interested parties of each community. See the organization’s website at http://www.win-peace.org/.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/windows

Wolfensohn Deal

In August 2005, UN special envoy to oversee Israel’s withdrawal from Gaza (see Gaza Disengagement), James Wolfensohn, arranged for the purchase and transfer of about 1,000 greenhouses from Jewish Israeli settler ownership to the Palestinian Authority. Wolfensohn, a former World Bank president, offered $500,000 of his own money for the deal, while a consortium of wealthy Americans covered the remaining $13.5 million. Expected to be a key factor in Gaza’s recovery after Israel’s disengagement in August 2005, the greenhouses were looted by Gazans immediately after the Israeli army left, leaving many of them unusable or in need of expensive repairs. The hi-tech greenhouses, which grew spices, flowers and vegetables primarily for export, had employed approximately 3,500 Gazans during the Israeli occupation. See Myre, Greg Myre “US Donors to Pay Departing Jews for Gaza Greenhouses.”  The New York Times. 13 August 2005. http://www.nytimes.com/2005/08/13/international/middleeast/13mideast.html; and Mitnick, Joshua. “Troubled Season for Gaza’s Greenhouses.” The Christian Science Monitor. 25 October 2005. http://www.csmonitor.com/2005/1025/p04s01-wome.html.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/wolfensohn-deal

Women in Black

Initiated by Israeli women in the late 1980s, Women in Black has become a worldwide movement of women for “peace with justice.” The Israeli Women in Black stand vigil in Hagar Square in West Jerusalem every Friday afternoon, holding signs calling for peace and an end to Israeli military occupation and wars. See the movement’s website at http://www.womeninblack/org/en.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/women-black

Women's International League for Peace and Freedom (WILPF)

An international organization whose Israeli branch is part of the Coalition of Women for Peace. Founded in 1915 during World War I, the organization brought suffragists together to protest the war and promote disarmament and other peaceful means to end violent conflict. See the organization’s website at  http://www.wilpf.org.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/womens-international-league-peace-and-freedom-wilpf

Yassin, Sheikh Ahmed

(1938-2004) A Palestinian political figure and Muslim cleric. Yassin was the co-founder and spiritual leader of Hamas. Due to a childhood accident, he was paralyzed and left partially blind. As a refugee in Gaza after the War of 1948, he worked as a teacher, preacher and community leader. He spent many years in Israeli prison, first for being a member of the Muslim Brotherhood, and later for ordering the killing of Palestinians accused of collaborating with the Israeli army. He was released in 1997 in exchange for the return of two Israeli secret service agents who had been detained in Jordan. The Israeli military attempted to assassinate him on several occasions, maintaining that he masterminded suicide attacks on Israelis. Yassin opposed the Oslo Process and made frequent public statements in support of suicide bombings. Prior to his death, he proposed a ceasefire with Israel on condition that they withdraw to 1967 borders and cease their policy of targeted assassinations. The Israeli military killed him by air strike on March 22, 2004. See Hartley, Cathy, ed. A Survey of Arab-Israeli Relations, 2nd ed. London and New York: Europa Publications, 2004; and Fischbach, Michael. “Yasin, Ahmad.” Philip Mattar, ed. Encyclopedia of the Palestinians. New York: Facts on File, 2005.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/yassin-sheikh-ahmed

Yatta

A Palestinian city in the southern West Bank, located 8 km south of the city of Hebron. Est. population in 2007: 48,672.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/yatta

Yavne

A city in central Israel, located 15 km south of the city of Jaffa. Est. population in 2009: 32,500.

Ya’alon, Moshe

(1950- ) A Jewish Israeli military and political figure. Ya’alon served in the Israeli army from 1973-2005. He held many positions in the army, promoted to Lieutenant-General in 2002 and serving as the 17th Chief-of-Staff until 2005. In 2009, as a member of the Likud party, he was elected to the Israeli parliament. He currently holds the positions of Vice Prime Minister and Minster of Strategic Affairs. See “Moshe Ya’alon.” Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 19 October 2011. http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/MFAArchive/2000_2009/2002/11/Lieutenant-General%20Moshe%20Ya-alonhttp://www.justvision.org/glossary/ya’alon-moshe

Yesh Din

An Israeli human rights organization that focuses on Israel’s duty to protect Palestinian civilians under its military’s occupation. In addition to taking legal action on behalf of Palestinian individuals and communities in various Israeli courts, Yesh Din also publishes reports on human rights abuses by the Israeli military and settlers. See the organization’s website at http://yesh-din.org.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/yesh-din

Yesha Council

(Yesha is the Hebrew acronym for Judea, Samaria and Gaza) An organized body founded in the 1970s representing Jewish Israeli settlers in the West Bank and, until the 2005 disengagement plan, the Gaza Strip. The organization’s aim is to guarantee security, offer humanitarian and municipal needs, and foster political action and public advocacy for settlers. The organization also serves as a political lobby and an organizational tool for the expansion of the settlements. See the Yesha Council’s website at http://www.yesha-israel.com/index/home/.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/yesha-council

Yishuv

(Hebrew for "town" or "settlement")  Refers to the Jewish communities established in the early days of the Zionist movement, but does not usually refer to settlements beyond the Green Line in the Occupied Palestinian Territories.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/yishuv

Young Israeli Forum for Cooperation (YIFC)

Founded in 2002, this Israeli nonprofit organization aims to  “increase the influence of young professionals on the regional integration of Israeli in the Middle East and Europe." YIFC’s programs are aimed at helping especially Israeli social and political activists to become involved in Israeli policy-making in order to promote peaceful relations with Israel’s neighbors. See the organization’s website at http://www.yifc.org.il/.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/yifc

Zion

An ancient Hebrew designation for the city of Jerusalem. Other biblical references use it to signify the national homeland of the Jews, which accounts for its contemporary usage to denote both the biblical land of Israel and the modern-day State of Israel.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/zion

Zionism

The belief that the Jewish people should have a national homeland and refuge from persecution. Supporters of this idea are called Zionists. The Zionist Movement took shape in Europe in the late 1800s with the First Zionist Conference in Basel, Switzerland. The movement advocated a national liberation ideology of the Jewish people. Although this ideology had several strands each with different visions, the most prominent became a movement for the establishment of a Jewish state within the biblical Land of Israel (Eretz Yisrael or Zion). Zionism has many manifestations, from religious to secular, each defining a distinct view of which land should be settled, and how it should be done. See “Zionism: Definition and History.” MidEast Web. 21 July 2011. http://www.mideastweb.org/zionism.htm.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/zionism

Zochrot

(Hebrew for “remembering”) An Israeli nonprofit organization that seeks to raise awareness amongst Jewish Israelis about the Palestinian Nakba (see Al-Nakba), the expulsion or dispossession of Palestinians during the War of 1948. See one of Zochrot’s projects at http://www.nakbainhebrew.org/en.  http://www.justvision.org/glossary/zochrot